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TOPIC: Mass Media and Public Relations
Assessment Description
Read the Topic 1 Required Readings on mass communication theories that relate to media influence. The readings are on the following theories: mass media, agenda setting, selective exposure, and cultivation theories.
Write a 500-750-word and include the following: 

An analysis of how these mass communication theories are a part of PR practice or inform PR practice
What must PR professionals consider regarding these theories when making decisions related to media influence?

Include three or more scholarly resources are required.
Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide.
You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite for similarity and plagiarism check 

RESOURCES
COM-370: Topic 1 Mass Media Theories Library Resource
Read the articles below related to mass media theories including media advocacy and agenda setting.
Media Advocacy
Laestadius, L., Lagasse, L., Smith, K., & Neff, R. (2012). Print news coverage of the 2010 Iowa egg recall: Addressing bad eggs and poor oversight. Food Policy, 37(6), 751-759. http://dx.doi.org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1016/j.foodpol.2012.08.005
Degeling, C., Rock, M., & Teows, L. (2011). Portrayals of Canine Obesity in English-Language Newspapers and in Leading Veterinary Journals, 2000–2009: Implications for Animal Welfare Organizations and Veterinarians as Public Educators. Journal Of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 14(4), 286. doi:10.1080/10888705.2011.600160 https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=65551440&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Shanahan, E., McBeth, M., Hathaway, P., & Arnell, R. (2008). Conduit or contributor? The role of media in policy change theory. Policy Sciences, 41(2), 115-138. doi:10.1007/s11077-008-9058-y https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=32118910&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Wakefield, M., Flay, B., Nichter, M., & Giovino, G. (2003). Role of the media in influencing trajectories of youth smoking. Addiction,9879-103. https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=9626651&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Agenda Setting
Besiou, M., Hunter, M. L., & Van Wassenhove, L. N. (2013). A web of watchdogs: Stakeholder media networks and agenda-setting in response to corporate initiatives. Journal of Business Ethics, 118(4), 709-729. https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=92671962&site=ehost-live&scope=site 
Hunter, M. L., Van Wassenhove, L. N., Besiou, M., & van Halderen, M. (2013). The agenda-setting power of stakeholder media. California Management Review, 56(1), 24-49. https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bah&AN=91976884&site=ehost-live&scope=site 
Lei, G. (2012). The application of social network analysis in agenda setting research: A methodological exploration. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 56(4), 616-631. doi:10.1080/08838151.2012.732148 https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=84221423&site=eds-live&scope=site&custid=s8333196&groupid=main&profile=eds1
Muddiman, A., Jomini Stroud, N., & McCombs, M. (2014). Media fragmentation, attribute agenda setting, and political opinions about Iraq. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 58(2), 215-233. doi:10.1080/08838151.2014.906433 https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aci&AN=96587136&site=ehost-live&scope=site 
Olds, C. (2013). Assessing presidential agenda-setting capacity: Dynamic comparisons of presidential, mass media, and public attention to economic issues. Congress & the Presidency, 40(3), 255-284. doi:10.1080/07343469.2013.824047 https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ulh&AN=90478734&site=ehost-live&scope=site 
Thesen, G. (2013). When good news is scarce and bad news is good: Government responsibilities and opposition possibilities in political agenda-setting. European Journal of Political Research, 52(3), 364-389. doi:10.1111/j.1475-6765.2012.02075.x https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=86449281&site=ehost-live&scope=site 
Yunjuan, L. (2014). The internet and agenda setting in China: The influence of online public opinion on media coverage and government policy. International Journal of Communication (19328036), 8, 1289-1312. https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ofs&AN=97253167&site=ehost-live&scope=site 

  
Topic 1 Optional Readings
For additional information related to theories on agenda setting, cultivation, and selective exposure in mass media, the following are recommended: 
Agenda Setting Theory:
Kiousis, S., Popescu, C., & Mitrook, M. (2007). Understanding influence on corporate reputation: An examination of public relations efforts, media coverage, public opinion, and financial performance from an agenda-building and agenda-setting perspective. Journal of Public Relations Research, 19(2), 147-165. doi:10.1080/10627260701290661
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Lei, G., Hong Tien, V., & McCombs, M. (2012). An expanded perspective on agenda-setting effects: Exploring the third level of agenda setting. Revista de Comunicación, 11, 51-68. 
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Cultivation Theory: 
Battersby, E., & Robinson, W. G. (2012). Paradise lost: Media in justice and justice in media. Seton Hall Journal of Sports & Entertainment Law, 22(1), 29-58. https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=s3h&AN=74031618&site=ehost-live&scope=site 
Beullens, K., Roe, K., & Van den Bulck, J. (2012). Music video viewing as a marker of driving after the consumption of alcohol. Substance Use & Misuse, 47(2), 155-165. doi:10.3109/10826084.2012.637449 https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=s3h&AN=70134123&site=ehost-live&scope=site 
Bryant, J. (1986). The road most traveled: Yet another cultivation critique. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 30(2), 231-335. 
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Chapin, J. R., & Coleman, G. (2012). Optimistic bias about dating/relationship violence among teens. Journal of Youth Studies, 15(5), 645-655. doi:10.1080/13676261.2012.665440 https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=82262038&site=ehost-live&scope=site 
Gabriel Chong, Y. M., Scott Teng, K. Z., Amy Siew, S. C., & Skoric, M. M. (2012). Cultivation effects of video games: A longer-term experimental test of first- and second-order effects. Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology, 31(9), 952-971. doi:10.1521/jscp.2012.31.9.952 https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=82671426&site=ehost-live&scope=site 
Hetsroni, A., & Lowenstein, H. (2013). Cultivation and counter cultivation: does religiosity shape the relationship between television viewing and estimates of crime prevalence and assessment of victimization likelihood? Psychological Reports, 112(1), 303-324. doi:10.2466/16.07.17.PR0.112.1.303-324 https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=86694503&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Kahlor, L., & Eastin, M. S. (2011). Television’s role in the culture of violence toward women: A study of television viewing and the cultivation of rape myth acceptance in the United States. Journal of broadcasting & Electronic Media, 55(2), 215-231. doi:10.1080/08838151.2011.566085 https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aci&AN=60827771&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Ki, E., & Hon, L. C. (2009). A measure of relationship cultivation strategies. Journal of Public Relations Research, 21(1), 1-24. doi:10.1080/10627260802520488
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Lewis, S., & Shewmaker, J. (2011). Considering age and gender: A comparative content analysis of sexualization of teen celebrity websites. International Journal Of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences, 5(12), 215-224. https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=88318696&site=ehost-live&scope=site 
Meyer, T. P. (1989). Reflections on cultivation theory and consumer behavior. Advances in Consumer Research, 16(1), 786-789. 
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Morgan, M., & Shanahan, J. (2010). The state of cultivation. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 54(2), 337-355. doi:10.1080/08838151003735018
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O’Guinn, T. C., Faber, R. J., Curias, N. J. J., & Schmitt, K. (1989). The cultivation of consumer norms. Advances in Consumer Research, 16(1), 779-785. 
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Waters, R. D. (2009). The Importance of understanding donor preference and relationship cultivation strategies. Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing, 21(4), 327-346. doi:10.1080/10495140802662523
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Selective Exposure Theory: 
Chan, J., & Stone, D. (2013). Media proliferation and partisan selective exposure. Public Choice, 156(3/4), 467-490. doi:10.1007/s11127-012-9928-x https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=89047048&site=ehost-live&scope=site 
Fischer, P. (2011). Selective Exposure, Decision Uncertainty, and Cognitive Economy: A New Theoretical Perspective on Confirmatory Information Search. Social & Personality Psychology Compass, 5(10), 751-762. doi:10.1111/j.1751-9004.2011.00386.x
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Fischer, P., Fischer, J. K., Aydin, N., & Frey, D. (2010). Physically attractive social information sources lead to increased selective exposure to information. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 32(4), 340-347. doi:10.1080/01973533.2010.519208 https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=55310446&site=ehost-live&scope=site 
Gil de Zúñiga, H., Correa, T., & Valenzuela, S. (2012). Selective exposure to cable news and immigration in the U.S.: The relationship between FOX News, CNN, and attitudes toward Mexican immigrants. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 56(4), 597-615. doi:10.1080/08838151.2012.732138 https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aci&AN=84221413&site=ehost-live&scope=site 
Kastenmüller, A., Greitemeyer, T., Jonas, E., Fischer, P., & Frey, D. (2010). Selective exposure: The impact of collectivism and individualism. British Journal Of Social Psychology, 49(4), 745-763. doi:10.1348/014466609X478988 https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=2010-26903-007&site=ehost-live&scope=site 
Magee, R. G., & Wojdynski, B. W. (2012). Mortality salience effects on selective exposure and web browsing behavior. Cyberpsychology, Behavior & Social Networking, 15(12), 663-668. doi:10.1089/cyber.2012.0205 https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=84188487&site=ehost-live&scope=site 
Meertens, R. M., & Lion, R. (2011). The effects of risk-taking tendency on risk choice and pre- and post-decisional information selection. Journal Of Risk Research, 14(6), 647-656. doi:10.1080/13669877.2010.547254
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Weaver, A. J. (2011). A meta-analytical review of selective exposure to and the enjoyment of media violence. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 55(2), 232-250. doi:10.1080/08838151.2011.570826 https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aci&AN=60827775&site=ehost-live&scope=site




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