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WATCH THE MOVIE 
AMERICAN FACTORY 
OBSERVE THE LEADERSHIP OF CHAIRMAN CAO and DISCUSS HIS LEADERSHIP STYLE 
PLEASE USE THE MATERIAL FROM CAMERON & GREEN 
and the topics we discussed in lectures CHAPTER 4 Leading change

Making sense of change management
chapter 4 – LEADING CHANGE

Trinity Western University
LDRS 420

Introduction
Good leadership is well-rounded leadership.
All four metaphors of organizations give rise to useful notions of leadership. We cannot get stuck in one metaphor, or one way of doing things, and therefore appear one-dimensional in our range of styles and approach
The machine metaphor;
The political system metaphor;
The organism metaphor; and
The flux and transformation metaphor.
Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 132-136.

Introduction (con’t)

Metaphor Advantages Disadvantages

Machine Clear goals and the need for structure. Overuse results in micromanagement of outcomes and too little risk taking.

Political system Adds the harsh reality of organizational life, reminds us of the necessity of involving influential people when change is desired. Overuse can be seen as manipulation.

Organism Highlights the need for people to be involved, and to feel the need for change. Runs the risk of moving too slowly and too late.

Flux and transformation Organizations and their people cannot be wholly controlled unless we rule by fear! Leaders must encourage discussion of conflicts and tensions to enable change to emerge, while avoid the gap of being too vague and lacking direction.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 132-136.

Introduction (con’t)
Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 132-136.
See Table 4.1 Leadership linked to organizational metaphors (p. 153-154)

Metaphor Nature of change Leader’s role Type of leadership required Typical pitfalls for the leader

Machine The designed end state can be worked towards. Resistance must be managed. Change needs to be planned and controlled.
Chief designer and implementer of the changes. Project management.
Goal setting. Monitoring and controlling. Micro-management by leader means activity focuses on measuring, rather than experimenting or taking risk.

Introduction (con’t)
Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 132-136.
See Table 4.1 Leadership linked to organizational metaphors (p. 153-154) (con’t)

Metaphor Nature of change Leader’s role Type of leadership required Typical pitfalls for the leader

Political system Changes must be supported by a powerful person.
Change needs a powerful coalition behind it.
Winners and losers are important. Politician – powerful speaker and behind the scenes negotiator. Visionary.
Building a powerful coalition.
Connecting agendas. Change leaders are seen as Machiavellian manipulators.
Leaders cannot be trusted, so people comply rather than commit. People do the minimum.
Leaders begin to follow their own agenda (cover their backs), rather than some higher purpose.

Introduction (con’t)
Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 132-136.
See Table 4.1 Leadership linked to organizational metaphors (p. 153-154) (con’t)

Metaphor Nature of change Leader’s role Type of leadership required Typical pitfalls for the leader

Organisms Change is adaptive. Individuals and groups need to be psychologically aware of the ‘felt need’ for change. End state can be defined and worked towards. Coach, counselor and consultant, holding up the mirror.
Coaching and supporting. The metaphor becomes an ideology. The change process becomes self-serving and achieves very little. There is a focus on reacting rather than initiating. Change happens, but too little too late.

Introduction (con’t)
Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 132-136.
See Table 4.1 Leadership linked to organizational metaphors (p. 153-154) (con’t)

Metaphor Nature of change Leader’s role Type of leadership required Typical pitfalls for the leader

Flux and transformation Change cannot be managed, it emerges. Managers are part of the system, not outside the system. Conflict is useful. Managers enable good connections between people.
Facilitator of emergent change. Getting the governing principles right. Enabling connectivity.
Amplifying issues. Leaders and others involved become confused and frustrated. There is chaos. The change effort becomes vague and directionless.
There is no sense of progress to motivate future effort.
Contradictions become sticking point.

Introduction (con’t)
Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 132-136.
Table 4.1 is also useful because it reveals a wide range of styles and skills required of leaders, depending on the metaphor in use:
Goal-setting;
Monitoring and controlling;
Coaching and supporting;
Building vision;
Communicating vision;
Building coalitions;
Networking;

Introduction (con’t)
Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 132-136.
Table 4.1 is also useful because it reveals a wide range of styles and skills required of leaders, depending on the metaphor in use: (con’t)
Negotiating;
Facilitating;
Dealing with conflict.
We need to find a way through the various requirements of a leader to pinpoint the most important roles, skills, and styles and areas of focus needed to make change happen.

Introduction (con’t)

We will look at leading change in six sections:
Visionary leadership;
Roles that leaders play;
Leadership styles, qualities and skills;
Different leadership for different phases of change;
The importance of self-knowledge and inner resources, and
Summary and conclusions.
Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 132-136.

Visionary Leadership
Bennis on the characteristics of visionary leaders. (p. 137-138)
“The first basic ingredient of leadership is a guiding vision. The leader has a clear idea of what he wants to do – professionally and personally – and the strength to persist in the face of setbacks, even failures. Unless you know where you are going, and why, you cannot possible get there.”
~ Warren Bennis (1994) ~
Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 137-138.

Visionary Leadership (con’t)
Bennis on the characteristics of visionary leaders. (p. 137-138) (con’t)
What does Winston Churchill, Margaret Thatcher, Nelson Mandela and Adolf Hitler has in common? (p. 137)
Clear vision;
Determination;
Great speaker, great presence;
Tough when needed, and
Able to stand alone.
Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 137-138.

Visionary Leadership (con’t)
Bennis on the characteristics of visionary leaders. (p. 137-138) (con’t)
Warren Bennis identified three basic ingredients of leadership: (p. 137)
A guiding vision;
Passion; and
Integrity.
He also developed a useful comparison of the differences between management and leadership (see Table 4.2, p. 138)
Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 137-138.

Visionary Leadership (con’t)
Kotter on what leaders really do. (p. 138-140)

“Leaders are different from managers: ‘They don’t make plans; they don’t solve problems; they don’t even organize people. What leaders really do is prepare organizations for change and help them cope as they struggle through it.’
~ John Kotter (1996) ~
Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 138-140.

Visionary Leadership (con’t)
Kotter on what leaders really do. (p. 138-140) (con’t)
Kotter echoes the ideas of Bennis.
Kotter’s three areas of focus for leaders (vs. the typical focus of a manager):
Setting direction versus planning and budgeting;
Aligning people versus organizing and staffing; and
Motivating people versus controlling and problem solving.
Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 138-140.

Visionary Leadership (con’t)
Kotter on what leaders really do. (p. 138-140) (con’t)

Examples of visionary leaders:
See Lieutenant Colonel Tim Collins’ speech.
(p. 138-139)
See Martin Luther King, Jr.’s speech “I Have a Dream”. (p. 140)
Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 138-140.

Visionary Leadership (con’t)
Bass (in Bryman, 1992) distinguished between transactional and transformational leadership. (p. 140-141)
Transformational leadership involves the leader raising the followers’ sense of purpose and levels of motivation.
The aim of the leader and the followers combine into one purpose, and the leader raises the followers’ confidence and expectations of themselves.
Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 140-141.

Visionary Leadership (con’t)
Transactional
Focuses on the exchanges that occur between leaders and their followers.
Pseudo-Transformational
Focuses on the leader’s own interests rather than the interests of his followers.
Ref: Northouse, P.G. (2016). Leadership: Theory and Practice (7th ed.). California, U.S.A. SAGE Publications, Inc. p. 161-194.
Transformational
Process of engaging with others to create a connection that increases motivation and morality in both the leader and the follower

Visionary Leadership (con’t)
Bass (in Bryman, 1992) distinguished between transactional and transformational leadership. (p. 140-141) (con’t)

Transformational leadership comprises (4 I’s):
Idealized influence, Charisma;
Inspirational motivation;
Intellectual stimulation;
Individual consideration.
Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 138-140.

Visionary Leadership (con’t)
Bass (in Bryman, 1992) distinguished between transactional and transformational leadership. (p. 140-141) (con’t)

Transactional leadership is simply an exchange in which the leaders hand over rewards when followers meet expectations:
Contingent reward;
Management by exception.
Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 138-140.

Visionary Leadership (con’t)
Howard Gardner’s (1996) lessons about visionary leadership. (p. 141-142)
Those leaders who had really made a difference to the way others thought, felt and acted all appeared to have a central story or message.
Stories not only provide background but also help the followers to picture the future.
Stories must connect with the audience’s needs and be embodied in the leader himself.
Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 141-142.

Visionary Leadership (con’t)
Heifetz and Laurie (1997) say that vision is not the answer (p. 142-143).
What is needed is adaptive leadership – challenging people, taking them out of their comfort zone, letting people feel external pressure and exposing conflict.
There is a difference between the type of leadership needed to solve a routine technical problem and the type of leadership needed to enable complex organizational change.
Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 142-143.

Visionary Leadership (con’t)
Heifetz and Laurie (1997) (p. 142-143). (con’t)

Leaders of change should concentrate on scanning the environment, and drawing people’s attention to the complex adaptive challenges that the organization needs to address, such as culture changes, or changes in core processes. This means:
Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 142-143.

Visionary Leadership (con’t)
Heifetz and Laurie (1997) (p. 142-143). (con’t)

Not solving problem for people, but giving the work back to them. e.g. Jesus showed Peter how to fish and did not give/get him
Not protecting people from bad news and difficulty, but allowing them to feel the distress of things not working well.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 142-143.

Visionary Leadership (con’t)

Ref: Northouse, P.G. (2016). Leadership: Theory and Practice (7th ed.). California, U.S.A. SAGE Publications, Inc. p. 261.

Visionary Leadership (con’t)
Jean Lipman-Blumen (2002): leaders need to make connections rather than build one vision. (p. 143-144)

We need to make connections among diverse people, ideas and institutions even when the parties themselves do not.
We need to reach out and collaborate even with old adversaries.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 143-144.

Visionary Leadership (con’t)
Jean Lipman-Blumen (2002): leaders need to make connections rather than build one vision. (p. 143-144)

We need to help others make good connections, and to develop a sense of common purpose across boundaries thus building commitment across a wide domain.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 143-144.

Visionary Leadership (con’t)
Jean Lipman-Blumen (2002) (p. 143-144). (con’t)

Lipman-Blumen’s 6 important strengths for connective leaders. (p. 144)
Ethical political savvy.
Authenticity and accountability.
A politics of commonalities.
Thinking long-term, acting short-term.
Leadership through expectation.
A quest for meaning.
Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 143-144.

Visionary Leadership (con’t)
Leadership for the 21st century: less vision, more connection. (p. 144-145)
Organization nowadays are more dispersed and less hierarchical.
Information is more freely available.
People want more from jobs than they used to.
Globalization and rise of social media  more independence of mind of individuals, increased inter-connectivity.
Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 144-145.

Visionary Leadership (con’t)
Leadership for the 21st century (p. 144-145). (con’t)

“Clear, visionary, authoritative leadership is no longer working.” (p. 144)
Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 144-145.

ROLES THAT LEADERS PLAY
What role should the leader play in a change process? (p. 146)

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 146.

ROLES THAT LEADERS PLAY
What role should the leader play in a change process? (p. 145-147) (con’t)
The machine metaphor – the leader sits at the top of the organization, setting goals and driving them through to completion.
The political system metaphor – the leader needs to become the figurehead of a powerful coalition which attracts followers by communicating a compelling and attractive vision, and through negotiation and bargaining.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 145-147.

ROLES THAT LEADERS PLAY
What role should the leader play in a change process? (p. 145-147) (con’t)

The organism metaphor – the leader’s primary role is that of a coach, counsellor or consultant.
The flux and transformation metaphor – the leader is a facilitator of emergent change.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 145-147.

ROLES THAT LEADERS PLAY
What role should the leader play in a change process? (p. 144-147) (con’t)

How does the leader of a change process ensure that all the necessary roles are carried out?
Should the leader try to perform all these roles personally, or select a specific role for him- or herself and distribute supporting roles among his or her colleague?

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 145-147.

ROLES THAT LEADERS PLAY
Senge et al (1999). (p. 147-150) (con’t)
Successful leadership of change does not come from the top of an organization. It comes from within the organization.
Senior executives do not have as much power as they would like to think.
He attacks our dependence on the ‘hero leader’ – resulting in a vicious cycle  does not result in new thinking, organizational learning or renewal, or growth.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 147-150.

ROLES THAT LEADERS PLAY
Senge et al (1999). (p. 148) (con’t)

Figure 4.1 The search for a hero-CEO
Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 148.

New CEO typically cuts costs and improves productivity and profit

Staff compete to please the boss rather than creating new products and processes

New crisis ensues

Search for hero-CEO

ROLES THAT LEADERS PLAY
Peter Senge et al (1999). (p. 147-150) (con’t)
Counteracts the reliance of top-level vision set out by Bennis and Kotter:
Little significant change can occur if it is driven from the top.
CEO programmes rolled out from the top are a great way to foster cynicism and distract everyone from real efforts to change.
Top management buy-ins is a poor substitute for genuine commitment and learning capabilities at all levels in an organization.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 147-150.

ROLES THAT LEADERS PLAY
Senge et al (1999) (p. 147-150) (con’t)
We need to develop communities of interdependent leaders across organizations – different types of leaders have different roles.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 147-150.

Executive leaders

Network leaders

Local Line leaders

ROLES THAT LEADERS PLAY
Senge et al (1999) (p. 147-150) (con’t)
Bushe, G.R. (1998) also talks about this. (see LDRS 303 Course Pack 18)

Ref: Bushe, G. R. (1998). Power and the Empowered Organization: The Design of Power in Highly Adaptive Organizations. The Organization Development Practitioner 30.4, pp. 31-43.

ROLES THAT LEADERS PLAY

O’Neill (2000) (p. 150-152)
Five specific leadership roles necessary for successful and sustained change efforts in organizations:
Sponsor – the authority to make the change happen.
Sustaining sponsor – make change in his/her own area of responsibility.
Implementer – implements the change.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 150-152.

ROLES THAT LEADERS PLAY
O’Neill (2000) (p. 150-152) (con’t)

Five specific leadership roles necessary for successful and sustained change efforts in organizations: (con’t)
Change agent – facilitator of change.
Advocate – has the ideas. Need people to make it happen.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 150-152.

LEADERSHIP STYLES, QUALITIES AND SKILLS
Goleman (2000) developed a set of six distinct leadership styles. (see LDRS 303 Course Pack 18 and supplementary notes in MyCourses)
Coercive style.
Authoritative style.
Affiliative style.
Democratic style.
Pacesetting style.
Coaching style.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 153-159.

LEADERSHIP STYLES, QUALITIES AND SKILLS

Goleman (1998): the importance of emotional intelligence for successful leaders. (see Emotional Intelligence 2.0, LDRS 303 Course Pack 14 and 15 and supplementary notes in MyCourses)
Self-awareness;
Self-management;
Social awareness; and
Social skills.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 153-159.

LEADERSHIP STYLES, QUALITIES AND SKILLS
Goleman (1998): the importance of emotional intelligence for successful leaders. (con’t)

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 153-159.

LEADERSHIP STYLES, QUALITIES AND SKILLS
Goleman (1998): the importance of emotional intelligence for successful leaders. (con’t)

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 153-159.

LEADERSHIP STYLES, QUALITIES AND SKILLS

Goleman (1998): the importance of emotional intelligence for successful leaders. (con’t)
Inner leadership (self-awareness, self-management and social awareness).
Competencies that are not necessarily observable.
Outer leadership (social skills).
Contains obvious observable behaviours.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 153-159.
.

LEADERSHIP STYLES, QUALITIES AND SKILLS

Cameron and Green (2008) derived a set of five leadership qualities to support change:
The Edgy Catalyser – focuses on creating discomfort to catalyse change.
The Visionary Motivator – focuses on engagement and buy-in to energize people.
The Measured Connector – focuses on sense of purpose and connectivity across the organization to help change to emerge.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 159-161.
.

LEADERSHIP STYLES, QUALITIES AND SKILLS
Cameron and Green (2008). (con’t)

The Tenacious Implementer – focuses on projects, plans, deadlines and progress to achieve results.
The Thoughtful Architect – focuses on frameworks, designs and complex fit between strategies and concepts to ensure that ideas provide a sound basis for change.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 159-161.

DIFFERENT LEADERSHIP FOR DIFFERENT PHASES OF CHANGE

Cameron and Green (2008) identified both the outer and inner leadership requirements for each phase of change: (see table 4.6, p. 162-163)

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 162-163.

DIFFERENT LEADERSHIP FOR DIFFERENT PHASES OF CHANGE

Kotter (1996) described the eight steps of change (see table 4.7, p. 164 and supplementary notes in MyCourses)
Good leaders must get all eight steps right.
The process will be a lot easier if groundwork is done well.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 164.

DIFFERENT LEADERSHIP FOR DIFFERENT PHASES OF CHANGE
Rosabeth Moss Kanter (2002) highlights:
The need to keep going in the change process, even when it gets tough.
The difficulties will come after the change has begun.
7 strategies to sustain a change process:
Tune into the environment.
Challenge the prevailing organizational wisdom.
Communicate a compelling aspiration.
Build coalitions.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 164-166.

DIFFERENT LEADERSHIP FOR DIFFERENT PHASES OF CHANGE
Rosabeth Moss Kanter (2002. (con’t)
7 strategies to sustain a change process: (con’t)
Transfer ownership to a working team.
Learn to persevere.
Make everyone a hero.
Sticky moments:
Forecasts fall short.
Roads curve.
Momentum slows.
Critics emerge.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 164-166.

DIFFERENT LEADERSHIP FOR DIFFERENT PHASES OF CHANGE
Bridges and Bridges (1991) has very clear ideas about what leaders need to do to make change work.
Managing ending phase.
Study the change carefully and identify who is likely to lose what.
Acknowledge those loses openly.
Allow those people to grieve and publicly express your own sense of loss.
Compensate people for their losses.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 166-168.

DIFFERENT LEADERSHIP FOR DIFFERENT PHASES OF CHANGE
Bridges and Bridges (1991). (con’t)

Managing ending phase. (con’t)
Give people information again and again.
Define what is over and what is not.
Find ways to ‘mark the ending’.
Honour rather than denigrate the past.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 166-168.

DIFFERENT LEADERSHIP FOR DIFFERENT PHASES OF CHANGE
Bridges and Bridges (1991). (con’t)

Leadership for the neutral zone.
Explain the neutral zone as an uncomfortable time which, with careful attention, can be turned into everyone’s advantage.
Choose a new and more affirmative metaphor with which to describe it.
Reinforce the metaphor with training programmes, policy changes and financial rewards for people.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 166-168.

DIFFERENT LEADERSHIP FOR DIFFERENT PHASES OF CHANGE
Bridges and Bridges (1991). (con’t)

Leadership for the neutral zone. (con’t)
Create temporary policies, procedures, roles and reporting relationships to get through this zone.
Set short-term goals and checkpoints.
Set up a transition monitoring team to keep realistic feedback flowing upwards during the time in the neutral zone.
Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 166-168.

DIFFERENT LEADERSHIP FOR DIFFERENT PHASES OF CHANGE
Bridges and Bridges (1991). (con’t)

Leadership for the neutral zone. (con’t)
Encourage experimentation and risk taking. Be careful not to punish all failures.
Encourage people to brainstorm many answers to the old problems – the ones that people say you just have to live with.
This zone is where people can be most creative.
Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 166-168.

DIFFERENT LEADERSHIP FOR DIFFERENT PHASES OF CHANGE
Bridges and Bridges (1991). (con’t)

Leadership for the new beginning.
Distinguish in you own mind the difference between the start, which can happen on a planned schedule, and the beginning, which will not.
Communicate the purpose of the change.
Create an effective picture of the change and communicate it effectively.
Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 166-168.

DIFFERENT LEADERSHIP FOR DIFFERENT PHASES OF CHANGE
Bridges and Bridges (1991). (con’t)

Leadership for the new beginning. (con’t)
Create a plan for bringing people through the three phases of transition, and distinguish it from the change management plan.
Help people to discover the part they will play in the new system.
Build some occasions for quick success.
Celebrate the new beginning and the conclusion of the time of transition.
Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 169-170.

THE IMPORTANCE OF SELF-KNOWLEDGE AND INNER RESOURCES

Bennis (1994) emphasizes the need to know yourself in order to become a good leader.
Leaders must have self-knowledge if they want to be freed up sufficiently to think in new ways.
We make our life our own by understanding it, and become our own designer rather being designed by our own experience.
Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 169-170.

THE IMPORTANCE OF SELF-KNOWLEDGE AND INNER RESOURCES

Bennis (1994). (con’t)

Four lessons of self-knowledge.
Be your own teacher.
Accept responsibility and blame no one.
You can learn anything you want to learn.
True understanding comes from reflecting on your experience.
See Table 4.8, p. 170 for Development stages and their challenges.
Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 169-170.

THE IMPORTANCE OF SELF-KNOWLEDGE AND INNER RESOURCES

Covey (1992) developed eight characteristics of principle-centered leaders and seven habits.
Eight characteristics of Principle-Centered Leaders.
They are continually learning.
They are service oriented.
They radiate positive energy.
They believe in other people.
They lead balanced lives.
Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 171-173.

THE IMPORTANCE OF SELF-KNOWLEDGE AND INNER RESOURCES

Covey (1992). (con’t)
Eight characteristics of Principle-Centered Leaders. (con’t)
They see life as an adventure.
They are synergistic.
They exercise for renewal on all four dimensions of human personality – physical, mental, emotional and spiritual. (see LDRS 303 Course Pack 16 and supplementary notes in MyCourses)
Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 171-173.

THE IMPORTANCE OF SELF-KNOWLEDGE AND INNER RESOURCES

Covey (1989) connects the leader’s outer habits with the inner capacity, which he labels ‘endowments’.
Seven habits:
Be proactive. Know what needs to be done and do it. Don’t be driven by circumstances.
Begin with the end in mind. Have a clear sense of what you are trying to achieve in each year, month, day, moment.
Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 171-173.

THE IMPORTANCE OF SELF-KNOWLEDGE AND INNER RESOURCES

Covey (1989). (con’t)
Seven habits: (con’t)
Put first things first. Organize how you spend your time in line with Habit 2. Look at the level of urgency vs. level of importance. We spend too much time responding to urgent issues.
Think win-win. Manage all interactions with the assumption that mutually beneficial solutions are possible.
Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 171-173.

THE IMPORTANCE OF SELF-KNOWLEDGE AND INNER RESOURCES

Covey (1989). (con’t)
Seven habits: (con’t)
Seek first to understand, then to be understood. Be prepared to clarify what other people are getting at before you put your point across.
Synergize. Value differences in people and work with others to create a sum that is greater than the parts. 1+1=3.
Sharpen the saw. Make time to renew.
Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 171-173.




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