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I have an exa at  4 am est. There will be 4 questions of 350 words each. I need it one hour back. I attached the reading materials

AF1100 – Financial Institutions

Tutorial Questions – Week 9

Question 1 – What is the defining characteristic of a derivative?

The defining characteristics is that it exists on the back of another security. If this other security was to cease to exist, so would the derivative.

Question 2 – What determines the price of a derivative?
The price of a derivative is a function of a number of variables, depending on the derivative. In some instances, the derivative is only an exchange of securities or security for cash, and since the terms are defined for both parties, there is no market value as such (e.g. currency future, where at maturity each side sells a currency in exchange for another), whereas in other instances, the price is a result of two sources of value: intrinsic and time value.
Intrinsic value is the difference between the exercise and the market value of the underlying security (e.g. an option to buy shares in a company for £2, when the market price is currently £2.20 has an intrinsic value of £0.20), while the time value is the possibility that executing the derivative will result in a gain at maturity due to change in the market price of the underlying asset between now and the maturity date (e.g. in the example above, time value is given by the possibility that the share price will increase further between now and maturity and in so doing creating more value to the buyer of the option.
Question 3 – For what purpose would someone use a derivative?
There are two purposes of using derivatives:
· When one has a risky position, we can use derivatives to reduce or eliminate the risk of the existing position – this is called hedging
· When one doesn’t have a risky position, but we believe there will be a change in market conditions in a certain direction, we can put ourselves in a position to generate a profit when (and if) that change does take place, by using derivatives, in which case we are creating a risky position – this is called speculating

Question 4 – Who are the four main operators in derivatives markets?
The four main operators in the derivatives markets are:
· End-user – the investor who is buying/selling the derivative for one of the two purposes described in the previous question
· Market-maker – financial institutions who ensure the market “exists” by providing quotes that are taken up by the end-users
· Regulator – the name says it all, these are the bodies responsible for regulating the market, i.e. creating the rules under which the market is going to operate and ensuring they are adhered to buy all the participants
· Financial engineering – this are the financial institutions that create derivative products, i.e. identify needs appearing in the market (either by hedgers or speculators) and develop products for which there is likely to be a demand as they serve the needs previously identified.

Question 5 – What are the three main types of derivative product?
The main types of derivatives are: futures, forwards, options, and swaps (see lecture notes, book and/or previous tutorial questions solutions for further details).
Question 6 – Compare the risk & reward for the buyer of a derivative with the risk & reward for the seller (“writer”) of a derivative.
The buyer is the one who is paying to have control, while the seller is the one being paid to allow the buyer to have control.
As such, the buyer gets what they want, i.e. reduction/elimination of risk if they are hedgers or taking of risk if they are speculators.
In all cases, once the seller agrees to the trade, they are dependent on what the buyer will do, especially when the derivative involves an option, which will be up to the buyer to exercise while the seller will have to do what the buyer wants.
In all cases, buyers and sellers have different expectations about the future value/price of the underlying asset, as both expect to not loose (hedger) or make money (speculator) when entering a derivative trade.

AF1100 – Financial Institutions

Tutorial Questions – Week 4

Question 12.1 – See end of book for recommended solution
Question 12.2 – See end of book for recommended solution
Question 12.3 – The resourcing of the internal audit department must be reviewed. Additional staff may be required where additional responsibilities are being assigned. Any new staff will probably need different skills and backgrounds to those already employed within the internal audit team.

Reviewing risk management systems requires good business awareness and formal accounting training is unlikely to be an important attribute. Where the responsibilities involve promoting risk awareness within the company, it is vitally important for staff to be able to communicate effectively with managers and to work as members of a management team.

Question 12.4 – See end of book for recommended solution
Question 12.5 – The chairman may help to improve the working relationship between the two groups in various ways. To deal with the concerns of the executive directors, the chairman should:
· Implement a rigorous recruitment and selection process to ensure that, in the future, directors of the right calibre are appointed.
· Provide induction and training programmes for non-executive directors to help them achieve a better understanding of the business and the challenges and problems that must be faced.
· Monitor the performance of individual directors against clearly established criteria and ensure that those that fail to meet the criteria either improve or are dismissed.
· Ensure that board meetings concentrate on strategic matters, to which non-executive directors should contribute, and do not become side tracked by detailed operational matters.

To deal with the concerns of the non-executive directors, the chairman should:

· Try to ensure that all directors receive the timely information on all relevant matters.
· Provide ‘clear-the-air’ meetings where directors can express their concerns.
· Discourage cliques and informal meetings to which only certain directors are invited.
· Call timely board meetings so that non-executive directors are given the opportunity to contribute towards important decisions.

AF1100 – Financial Institutions

Tutorial Questions – Week 10

Duska et AL’s Accounting Ethics – Discussion Questions 1-5 chapter 1 – page 29

Question 1

Throughout this chapter of the book, there are various mentions to numbers from the accounting system and uses made of those, but we can summarise the key ideas as follows:

· Accounting information is prepared for the company’s shareholders who use that information to make investment decisions (whether to buy, sell or keep shares in the company)
· All other users (employees, customers, competitors, lenders, etc.) have access to the published information and they then use it to make their own decisions, as well
· As such, reliability of all stakeholders on the quality of the accounting information is high and that puts the onus on the accountants to produce quality and timely information

Question 2
If you look at page 19 of the book, there is a list of different roles that are fulfilled by accountants, and each of them requires different skills, use of personal judgement and use of appropriate techniques and principles.
As such, there is not a single body of knowledge all accountants need to possess, but rather a common knowledge base which then needs to be developed/augmented by each individual accountant, which is tailored to the role they are taking on. Thus the concept of art and craft, as each role will be different.
Question 3
Accountants perform their duties in the public’s best interest. As such, any information that is relevant for the public to understand the true performance of a company needs to be disclosed and it is the obligation of the accountant to do so.
See section on Ethics of Disclosure in the book.
Question 4
See book section on Roles an Accountant can Fulfil, which includes a good identification of the different roles of the accountant and the potential ethical issues they might face.
Question 5
The main aim of the preparation of accounts is to present a true picture of the company’s performance, so the development of accounting standards is driven by that objective. In order to do so, standards try to ensure there is a consistent approach in the accounting of similar transactions by all companies, while at the same time ensuring there are rules that apply to all transactions a company can face.
See also discussion on the Development of Explicit Accounting Standards and Regulations on this chapter of the book for further details.

Duska et AL’s Accounting Ethics – Discussion Questions 1-6 chapter 2 – page 52

Question 1

See the sections on “Actions” and “Social Practices, Institutions and Systems” on this chapter of the book, for a good explanation of these concepts and the differences between them.

Question 2
Very complete answer and discussion, listing the five reasons for studying ethics in the section of the chapter titles “Why Study Ethics”.
Question 3
Ethical analysis, as the name indicates, is about understanding whether a professional’s actions can be classified as ethical or not. Being ethical can have different meanings, but the assessment of whether an action is ethical or not needs to be done in light of the six principles recognised in the AICPA code of ethics, as listed and discussed on page 42 of this chapter of the book.
Question 4
This is more of five reasons rather than four, and they covered in significant details in the five sections of the chapter starting with Questions to Ask to Justify and Action: the Basis of Ethical Theory.
The five subsequent questions, heading each section are the key questions one needs to ask when deciding whether an action is ethical or not and making sure the correct answer is given to each of them constitutes the reasons to evaluate the ethics of the action.
Question 5
An ethical dilemma exists when there is a conflict between the reasons listed in the previous question. For example, if an action is in the best interest of the accountant but it goes against a commitment previously made, the accountant is facing a conflict of interest.
Question 6
Any example from your own experience (doesn’t need to be accounting related, as we as individuals frequently face ethical dilemmas as well) or that you might have heard of is acceptable.

AF1100 – Financial Institutions

Tutorial Questions – Week 6

Chapter 5 (H&B) – Questions for Discussion 1-6
Question 1 – As discussed in class, the key differences between the money and the capital markets are:
· Liquidity – money markets are more liquid, because
· Length of transactions – money market transactions are mostly short (or very short) term, unlike capital markets
· Access – only banks, governments and very large corporations access the money market, making it
· Security – a very safe market

In terms of the reasons for accessing the money market, then all participants can go in as listed and explained on page 118 of H&B. These participants are:
· Lenders and borrowers
· Brokers
· Issuing houses
· Market-makers
· Arbitrageurs
· Speculators
· Hedgers

Question 2 – Please see list on page 122 of H&B for money market instruments issued at a discount and on a yield basis
When an instrument is issued on a yield basis, the initial amount transferred is the face value of the instrument and the repayment is made for the face value plus the interest. When an instrument is issued on a discount basis, the initial amount transacted is the face value minus the discount and at redemption the amount exchanged is the face value.
As an example of a quoted 5% and assuming a face value of £1,000. This makes the redemption value of the CD equal to £1,050 and the issue amount of the treasury bill equal to £950.
As such the return of the CD will be (1,050 – 1,000) / 1,000 = 5%, while the return of the treasury bill will be (1,000 – 950) / 950 approx.= 5.263%
This is what will always happen, i.e. the instrument issued at a discount will offer a higher return if the quoted rate is the same
Question 3 – In order to address this question, we need to understand that the impact is not a “direct one, as we are discussing long term interest rates and Commercial paper is a short-term instrument.
Companies issue a mix of short and long-term debt, depending on their investment needs and the type of assets they own, but that mix is flexible. As such, if there is a sentiment in the market that long term interest rates are likely to be going down, companies will be shifting some of the debt they need to issue from long to short term. Considering the issuers of debt instruments are the ones making it available in the market, i.e. the supply side, we should see an increase in the supply of commercial paper.

Question 4 – A large sale of Government bonds increases the supply of low-risk instruments for investors, which is likely to reduce the demand for money market instruments, as investors have a safer alternative for their available funds.
As for the first part of the question, the answer is a little trickier, as it depends on the current situation in the market. While logic indicates that increasing the supply of financial instruments allows investors a more diverse range of investment alternatives, thus leading them to invest more resulting in an increase in liquidity, there is the danger that, if the market is already very liquid, this large issue will divert funds from other investments thus commitment significant cash resources to these bonds resulting in a reduction in liquidity in the market.
Question 5 – Please read through section 5.3 of H&B for a more detailed discussion of central bank’s implementation of monetary policy and its impact on the money markets. The key instruments are:
· Setting of interest rates
· Lending via “discount window”
· Open market operations
· Repurchase agreements

Question 6 – A repo agreement is one way of borrowing/lending without the issue of a new security, as one side sells an existing financial instrument to the other with an agreement to repurchase it a later date, with a pre-agreed price.

Repos are short term instruments and other lending and interest rates are linked to the repo rates. As such, if the central bank is concerned about the rate of growth of credit, it will attempt to increase interest rates by using the repo market. This can be achieved by selling instruments today (in this way already reducing the money available in the market for credit) and agreeing to buy back on “generous” terms, i.e. a repurchase price that results in a high interest rate, thus leading to an increase in the market interest rates.

AF1100 – Financial Institutions

Tutorial Questions – Week 7

Chapter 6 (H&B) – Questions for Discussion 1-10
Question 1 – Without a secondary market, there would be no primary market, or if still existed it would be much smaller. In the primary market, borrowers raise funds from lenders/shareholders, but what allows these to lend/buy shares is the fact that they know that if they ever need the funds they are lending/investing back, they will be able to get them by selling them to other lenders at, and this is essential, a price that is fair, i.e. without significant loss of value.

Without this “guarantee” the risk would be too high considering the lenders would need to find a buyer and, since there would be no active, competitive market, the buyer would be able to set a very low price in order to buy the security.

Question 2 – In general, the prices of goods and services increase over time (inflation), meaning the purchasing power of money is reduced over time. As such, in order to be able to acquire the same goods in the future, a larger amount of money will be necessary. For example, if inflation is 5% over one year, and at the start we could buy a certain basket of goods with £100, at the end of that year, we would need £105. These amounts are called “equivalent”, i.e. £100 is the present equivalent of £105 in a year’s time and £105 is the equivalent in a year’s time of £100 today.

The processes of calculating these equivalent amounts are called discounting (calculating the present equivalent of a future amount) and compounding (calculating the future equivalent of a present amount).

When we are buying and selling securities, we are paying today for cash flows we will receive in the future, and in most cases at various different points in the future, and therefore in order to find how much we are willing to pay, we need to discount all those future cashflows (at a rate of return that we think appropriate for the investment we will be doing) to today.

Question 3 – Bond prices, whether they are short or long term bonds, depend solely on the interest rate (commonly known as yield). As such, a long term bond will be more volatile as any change in interest rates affects the bond for longer, but interest rates don’t tend to vary much in the short term, and therefore none of the bonds are likely to have high sort-run price volatility.

Share prices, on the other hand, depend (and are therefore affected) on a large number of variables (company related, sector related and economy related) so the probably of one or more events that affect one or more of those many variables is much greater and the share is likely to have the largest short-run price volatility. The industry in which the company operates is also significant, in this instance being a “technology” sector, which therefore can change significantly if a new technic/discovery happens.

Question 4 – Both bonds will be selling at a discount (i.e. below face or par value) as the rate you are getting (the coupon rate of 8%) is less than the rate you require (the market rate of 10%), so this is not a good investment, everyone will want to sell, so the price will go down until the equilibrium is reached, which is when the redemption yield (or yield to maturity) is equal to the required, in this instance 10%, which will be the redemption yield of both bonds.

As for the price, the longer the bond, the bigger the impact of any rate differential (between coupon and market rate) so the 10 years bong will be cheaper than the three year bond.
Question 5 – The two most obvious are liquidity (banks and other financial institutions have regular required payments, thus holding instruments that can regularly be converted into cash is beneficial) and price volatility, as the price of short dated securities is less volatile and therefore this is less risky for institutions that have regular payments to make.

Question 6 – A quote-driven market is when the bid and ask quotes of market makers are available and any buyers or sellers go to these market makers and buy or sell in line with those quotes. In an order-driven market all the bid and ask quotes of any market participants are available and anyone can match any quotes for a trade to take place.

Question 7 – According the Capital Asset Pricing Model, the return of the share is given by the following formula: Rj = Rf + β * (RM – Rf) in this instance 5 + 1.1*10 = 16%.

According the Dividend Growth Model, the price is given by P = D1 /(K – g), where K is the required return on the share calculated in line with the CAPM.

In this case the fair price of the share should be P = 20*(1+0.06)/(0.16-0.06) = 212 pence or £2.12, so if it is trading at £2.50, they are overpriced, so your friend should sell.

The variables are:
Rj – required return on security j (also K)
Rf – return on a risk free investment
RM – return of the market portfolio (RM – Rf = market risk premium)
β – assesses the level of risk of the security relative to the market portfolio risk
D1 – dividend in period one (next period) which can be calculated as D0 * (1 + g), with D0 being the most recently paid dividend
G – growth rate of dividend

Question 8 – Capital risk is the risk that the value of your investment will be different from what you expect at the time of redemption/sale. You are not told what is the timeframe of your investment, but the book was publish in 2007, so the second bond will be a very short one and therefore the capital risk is virtually non-existent, so that would be the obvious choice. Two other issues to note:
· Because the Treasury is for 2020, which is 13 years into the future, it intends to indicate that the probability that you’ll need the capital prior to maturity is high, thus making the capital risk higher
· For two bonds of the same maturity, as a rule the one with the lowest coupon rate (unless it is too low and therefore potentially much lower than market rates, which is not the case with a 5% rate) is the one with the lowest capital risk and the price volatility will be lower.

Question 9 – Clean price – the price of the bond immediately after the payment of a coupon, meaning there is an integer number of periods to maturity
Dirty price – the price of the bond at any other times, which includes a number of whole coupons but also a percentage of interest already accrued since the payment of the most recent coupon.
Accrued interest – interest that is already incurred as the period to which it refers has already started, but only becomes due at the agreed payment date (in the case of a bond, the coupon payment date). To note that interest is normally paid in arrears, thus accrued but not yet paid interest existing.
Interest yield – yield is a synonym of return, which is what you earn from an investment, so interest yield in the return you receive in the form of interest.
Redemption yield – yearly return earned in an interest-paying investment (e.g. bond) if you hold the investment until maturity.

Question 10 – Market capitalisation – Market value of the equity of a company, calculated as the price per share multiplied by the total number of outstanding shares.
Dividend yield – as per explanation of interest yield in the previous question, this is the return earned in an investment in the form of dividend, where dividend is a cash payment made from the company to shareholders
P/E ratio – price per share (P) represents future performance of the company (as explained in Q2 above, the price is equivalent to the present value of all the future cash flows generated by buying the share), whereas E stands for Earnings Per Share (EPS), which represents (recent) past performance of the company. The ratio therefore is a metric of how well investors expect the company to perform relative to its current performance and the higher it is, the higher the expectations.

AF1100 – Financial Institutions

Tutorial Questions – Week 8

Question 1 – What is the difference between nominal and real interest rates?

Nominal rates are the rates that are normally quoted on loans or investments/deposits and are unaffected by inflation. Real rates on the other hand reflect the change in value/wealth effectively achieved. The relationship between the two rates, using variables consistent with the ones in the H&B book, is as follows: (1+i) = (1+r)(1+P), where i represents the nominal rate of interest, r the real rate of interest and P the inflation rate.

For example, if you make a deposit today that pays you a nominal rate of 4% and inflation during the coming year is 3%, when you collect the money deposit at the end of the year, your wealth will have gone up by:

(1+0.04) = (1+r)(1+0.03) r = 1.04/1.03 – 1 r = 0.971%, meaning in real terms you are 0.971% richer.

Question 2 – What is the term structure of interest rates?

The term structure of interest rates is also called the yield curve and it represents the relationship between interest rates (or government bond yields, as they are considered risk-free) and different terms or maturities. When graphed, the term structure of interest rates normally has an upward slope due to the higher risk associated with longer term investments, but under certain conditions it can have different shapes. The yield curve is simultaneously a consequence but also an indicator of the current state of an economy.

While the yield curve can be used to represent any category of bonds, it should be representing bonds of the same level of risk, so that the only difference in rates can be explained by the different maturities (and consequent liquidity preference). As such, considering governments bonds exist for all maturities unlike bonds of a single corporation, normally government bond rates.

Question 3 – What is the yield curve? How does it normally slope?

Little trick question… same answer as above…

Question 4 – What does a reverse yield curve signify?

More commonly known as inverted yield curve, it is a situation where short-term interest rates are higher than long term rates. When an inverted yield curve exists, it is an indication that the market is expected interest rates to go down, which is normally a signal of lack of confidence, i.e. that the market expects a downturn or even a recession happening soon.

Question 5 – What is the loanable funds theory for determining interest rates?

Loanable funds theory states that the interest that exists in a market are the result of equilibrium between supply and demand of loanable funds in that market. Loanable funds is a term that refers to money available for lending, so it includes al forms of loans (bank loans, deposits, bonds, etc.).

Whenever there is a change in the amount of supply or demand of loanable funds, a new equilibrium is achieved. For example, is there is an increase in supply, the supply line moves to the right, leading to a new equilibrium initially at a lower interest rate, which is likely to lead to an increase in demand for funds, leading the demand line to move to the right with a consequent increase in interest rates. This final equilibrium rate is likely to be lower than the starting point prior to the increase in supply of loanable funds.

Question 6 – What is wrong with the loanable funds theory?

The main criticism of the loanable funds theory is that it combines real factors like savings or investment with monetary factors like bank credit. Savings can be used for many purposes rather than simply for lending, and on the other hand lending can take place without prior availability of savings.

Question 7 – How does the liquidity preference theory tackle this problem?

By introducing the (correct) notion that investors prefer more liquid assets over less, the liquidity preference theory goes away from the notion that savings match lending instead suggesting that lenders/investors will demand higher rates of return (premium) in order to be willing to lend for longer periods, as those attract higher risk.

Question 8 – What is interest rate parity between different currencies?

Interest rate parity derives from the notion that hedged returns from investing in different currencies should be the same regardless of their interest rates. In order to ensure that happens, exchange rate over time need to change to offset any benefits that a country with a higher interest rate offers to an investor.

The following formula represents the interest rate parity

F0 = S0 * (1 + id) / (1 + if) or F0 / S0 * (1 + if) = (1 + id)

Question 9 – How are covered and uncovered interest rate parity different?

When there is interest rate parity, there are no abnormal return opportunities, as there is equilibrium in the market. As such, it is the absence of the parity (i.e. there is a mispricing) that allows for arbitrage.

In covered interest rate parity, as the name says, your position is covered, i.e. in the case of mispricing, you confirm all the relevant trades in the present even if some take place in the future, so you know all your future cash flows and therefore profit you will make is risk free.

In an uncovered position, prices are such that, if they remain unchanged, you will be able to make a profit, but your position is open (or uncovered) so it is possible that between now and the future point in time at which the profit will be made, prices will correct to eliminate the profit opportunity or even reverse and lead to a loss.

Question 10 – What is meant by “purchasing power parity” between two currencies?

Purchasing Power Parity means that the relative cost of a similar product should be the same in different locations (normally countries). For example, if the exchange rate between two countries is 1.5 units of currency of b to one unit of currency of a, if a product costs 3 unit of currency in the country a, it should cost 4.5 units of currency in country b.

Question 11 – What is the difference between fixed and floating exchange rates?

In a fixed exchange rate system, the exchange rate between two currencies is fixed, so even if there are disparities in the performance of the two economies, the exchange rate will not change to compensate for those disparities.

In a floating exchange rate system, the exchange rate between two currencies if allowed to change. Changes will be driven by the relative desirability of the economies of the two countries, with the best performing becoming more attractive for investors, thus increasing demand for the currency and an increase in its value

Question 12 – What are the arguments for & against fixed and floating e-rates?

The key advantages and disadvantages of a fixed exchange rate system are:

· Advantages:
· Avoids currency fluctuations, thus providing more certainty” which also leads to…
· Encouraging firms to invest
· Avoids devaluation of the currency, which leads to less competitive exporters and more expensive imported goods and services
· Incentive to keep inflation low to avoid future devaluations
· Disadvantages:
· Potential conflict with other macro-economic objectives, such as current account, inflation, etc.
· Less flexibility
· Potential current account imbalances
· May require increase in interest rates in order to maintain the competitiveness of a currency that would naturally have devalued

Needless to say that the advantages of one system become the disadvantages of the other and vice-versa.
As to which one is better, you can see here (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_circulating_fixed_exchange_rate_currencies) a list of the countries which currently have a fixed exchange rate system and draw your own conclusions … but if not, make sure you ask!

AF1100 – Financial Institutions

Tutorial Questions – Week 3

Question 1 – From the following table, identify potential warning signs of financial difficulties and/or accounting manipulation:

Note: Education sector growing at 5% per annum
As such, we observe:
· Significantly higher growth that the rest of the sector
· Revenue growing significantly more than the COGS
· And while profits are going up, cash flows are decreasing

Question 2 – Which of the following companies is LEAST likely to manipulate its reported financial statements:
A. A high-tech, fast-growth company whose management regularly receives 70% of its remuneration through bonuses and share options
B. A highly leveraged real estate developer operating in an economy where interest rates have just been sharply increased
C. An electrical utility supplier who collects 85% of revenue from long term contracts at guaranteed prices with established customers

D. An acquisitive high-growth retailer who has just raised $3 billion of new equity to finance a new venture with an overseas acquisition
The management of the high-tech company need good reported results to earn their bonuses and make their share options valuable
The highly leveraged real estate developer will be at risk of breaching bank covenants if housing demand falls in reaction to higher interest and mortgage rates.
The retailer wishes to avoid disappointing the investors who have just provided $3 billion of new equity and on whom he may wish to call again to fund future ventures.
The utility supplier is in a steady mature guaranteed monopoly-type sector from which investors expect regular results rather than exciting growth.

Question 3 – Which of the following is likely to provide the most robust defence of shareholders’ interests against management manipulation?
A. Sell-side equity research analysts
B. External auditors
C. Securities regulators

D. Financial media
The securities regulators are the only bodies with statutory powers to penalise corporate management with fines and even prison sentences. They are also the only bodies with no commercial or other distractions or conflicts of interest, other than scrutinising corporate behaviour.

Question 4 – From the following table, identify potential warning signs of financial difficulties and/or accounting manipulation:

This was little bit of a trick question… While you can look at the Balance Sheet on its own, highlight the lines you can see in yellow, calculate growth rates (except for the line in blue) and draw the conclusions below, this balance sheet relates to the company in Question 1 above and some important conclusions will be drawn when comparing the information on both statements.
From the Balance Sheet, the key areas of concern would be:
· Very rapid growth in a number of current asset and current liabilities accounts, indicating potential overtrading;
· Inventory growing at an extremely rapid pace, while cash is being eroded
· Not necessarily of concern, as at some point that is expected, but it is worth understanding why the rate of growth has slowed down so much at the same time that current assets are increasing so fast.
·

When we have access to both statements, we are able to compare figures, calculating ratios which can be seen above and below.
From the table above, Asset Turnover goes down over time and leverage is at a consistently high level (increasing and then reducing) but all other ratios look very good.
Looking at the table below, the picture is very different as, unless there are some very good reasons, some ratios are worrying:
· All days ratios are very high to start and grow even higher over the period, resulting in a significantly deteriorated Cash Conversion Cycle, once again indicating potential overtrading
· Both asset and inventory turnover have deteriorated
· On the other hand, liquidity ratios have remained relatively stable and the interest cover is significantly improved due to the increase in operating Profits

Question 5 – Trawl through FT.com and other financial media for articles about the dispute between Hewlett Packard and the former management of its 2011 acquisition, Autonomy.
Come to the tutorial prepared to discuss whether, on the basis of the information available, it seems like:
· A case of over-optimistic accounting by an ambitious high-tech innovator keen to promote a high profile and company valuation
· OR, a case which justifies being examined in more depth in a court of law
BACKGROUND
· 1980s software IP start-up based in Cambridge, England (i.e. high tech and high IQ)
· Reported $1bn revenues and $250m profit in 2010-11 (approximately)
· Acquired by Hewlett Packard in November 2011 for $11.1bn
· Acquisition price represented:
· 70 % premium to market capitalisation
· 11x price to sales ratio
· 47x price to pre tax profit ratio
· Widely criticised at the time as massive over-payment by troubled former market leader (HP) in desperate rush to shift away from low-margin hardware into high-margin software
SUBSEQUENT DISPUTE
· Change of management at HP: new CEO not responsible for Autonomy deal
· Within six months fires Autonomy founder, Mike Lynch in 2012
· Shortly afterwards, HP wrote down value of Autonomy stake by $8.8 bn (of which $5bn attributed to accounting irregularities and misrepresentations)
· HP claimed that $350m out of (roughly) $1bn revenue reported by Autonomy in 2010-11 had been improperly recognised
·  HP said it had uncovered “serious accounting improprieties, disclosure failures and outright misrepresentations” at Autonomy.
· Sales on credit to software “re-sellers” recognised prior to being legally confirmed or paid
· “Autonomy senior management participated in deals with value-added resellers designed either to improperly accelerate revenue recognition or to manufacture revenue where none existed, all with the end goal of making Autonomy appear to be growing at a faster rate than was actually the case.” – HP statement
M&A ACTIVITY
· Autonomy “sold” $23m software on credit to small US re-seller, MicroLink, in 2009
· One year later, Autonomy bought Microlink for $55m
· Management accounts suggest that only $7m out of $23m “sales” had been paid by Microlink to Autonomy and that at least half of software “sold” was still in Microlink’s inventory
· Critics allege that Autonomy paid inflated $55m price (over 2x sales) to hide previous over-reporting of sales and subsequent bad debts
· Autonomy management claims that US deal was essential to maintain its presence in US high security markets and that Microlink’s Washington DC security connections helped to secure $150m subsequent US turnover
LEGAL DISPUTE
· Revenue being recognised for products where payments were unlikely to be made by the buyers; barter-type transactions where the value of the sale could not be properly assessed; and sales of hardware wrongly logged as software.
· Restatement in 2014 of subsidiary company (ASL) accounts at Companies House for 2010 cuts profits from £106m to £20m and revenue from £176m to £81m. The 2010 loss at ACL, the holding company, has been restated from the original £12m to £22m.
· HP claim false revenue recognition. Autonomy claim difference between US and International accounting standards.
· January 2015: Serious Fraud Office (SFO) closed down UK investigation into impropriety or fraud surrounding the HP-Autonomy transaction. This investigation had been prompted by HP request in 2013.
· Ongoing legal suit in US
ANALYSIS OF REVENUE RECOGNITION
· $350m revenue booked in 2010-11 were improperly recognised
· $8.4 “not IFRS compliant confirmed”
· $252.4m “not IFRS compliant probable”
· $83.6m “management difference/US GAAP difference”
· Different versions of using “loss-leader” deals to generate profile and presence in fast-growing software market
· HP claim misrepresentation through premature and fictitious revenue recognition to make Autonomy look larger than it is
· Autonomy claim that these are normal sales in software market
CONCLUSION
· Autonomy clearly aggressive in revenue recognition and pushing boundaries of accounting standards
· Equally clearly, this was designed to promote the profile of Autonomy as a market leader with a rapidly expanding turnover and presence
· And probably also to increase its disposal price
· BUT accrual accounting leaves scope for judgment, subject to auditor’s approval
· Auditor responsible for “true and fair” assurance, based on information made available
· Provided that Autonomy cannot be shown to have provided false information to the auditor, then it can only be accused of aggressive accounting rather than fraud
· Also, only $8m revenue identified in HP document as “definitely” not compliant with IFRS – tiny relative to $8.8bn writedown taken by HP
· SFO’s withdrawal implies that under UK financial regulations Autonomy does not have a case for fraud to answer
· Continuing LARGE SCALE US law case (up to $30m fees) being pursued by HP shows difference between UK and US financial regulatory systems

Question 6 – PEARSON
· UK-based publisher of educational materials
· Used to have wide-ranging media interests (FT, Penguin, Satellite Systems), all of which have been sold
· Has shifted focus over past 20 years from Europe to USA
· 75% of profits now derived from US educational publishing
· Five separate profit downgrades over the past year due to collapse in US college textbook purchasing
· Share price fell by 75% between 2000 and 2003 the worst value decline of any major UK-quoted company
· Share price recovered by 150% between 2003 and 2015 …
· … then collapsed again by 60%
· Misjudgement? Aggressive accounting? Corporate fraud?
This is an old case, which is interesting given the significant fluctuations of share price over a long period of time, but if you look it up, there is no evidence of any wrongdoing, simply a company operating in an industry that is very volatile.
Question 7 – BT Group plc is UK’s leading broadband, fixed line and telecoms equipment provider
· On 25th January 2017, BT’s share price fell 20% in one day in response to (a) £530m write-down against over-stated profits in Italian subsidiary, and (b) reports of falling revenue from UK public sector clients
· Share price has continued to fall since then
· It is now 30% lower than one year ago and has fallen by over 40% in the past two years
· Read through the financial media coverage and BT statements around January last year
· Was this corporate fraud on a group level, as with Enron?
· What does it tell us about the role of auditing accountants?
If you google “BT accounting fraud”, various pieces of news about an accounting scandal in BT’s Italian unit starting in 2016. If you then follow the timeline, you’ll see that in August of last year, BT was exonerated by a US court of misleading ADR owners.
This is a good example to illustrate that:
· as soon as fraud is detected it needs to be addressed
· if the fraud is in a subsidiary, it is up to the company itself to address it
· once discovered it takes time for the situation to be resolved, meaning that …
· … financial institutions should work diligently to uncover any mistakes/misleading/fraud in a company’s accounts before getting involved doing business with such companies to avoid significant problems and costs in the future.

Sheet1

Cass Educational Services plc

(Education sector growing at 5% per annum)

Annual growth rate comparisons

Income Statement 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Income Statement 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013

Revenue 250 275 314 350 425 500 Revenue 10% 14% 11% 21% 18%

Cost of Goods Sold 165 180 195 210 240 270 Cost of Goods Sold 9% 8% 8% 14% 13%

Gross Profit 85 95 119 140 185 230 Gross Profit 12% 25% 18% 32% 24% Gross margin 34% 35% 38% 40% 44% 46%

Operating Costs 50 52 55 58 62 70 Operating Costs 4% 6% 5% 7% 13%

Operating Profit 35 43 64 82 123 160 Operating Profit 23% 49% 28% 50% 30% Operating margin 14% 16% 20% 23% 29% 32%

Interest 10 12 15 17 20 25 Interest 20% 25% 13% 18% 25%

Pre-tax Profit 25 31 49 65 103 135 Pre-tax Profit 24% 58% 33% 58% 31% Pre-tax margin 10% 11% 16% 19% 24% 27%

Taxation 7.5 9.3 15 20 31 41 Taxation 24% 58% 33% 58% 31%

Net Profit 17.5 21.7 34 46 72 95 Net Profit 24% 58% 33% 58% 31% Net margin 7% 8% 11% 13% 17% 19%

Dividends paid 7 10 15 20 35 45 Dividends paid 43% 50% 33% 75% 29%

Cash Flow Cash Flow Asset turnover 1.14 1.07 1.00 0.88 0.89 0.83

Operating 35 45 45 -1 -5 12 Operating 29% 0% – – + Return on assets 8.0% 8.4% 10.9% 11.5% 15.1% 15.6%

Investing -15 -15 -10 -10 -15 -15 Investing 0% -33% 0% 50% 0% Leverage 2.61 2.93 3.32 3.57 3.21 2.89

Financing 5 15 20 5 15 15 Financing 200% 33% -75% 200% 0% Return on equity 20.8% 24.7% 36.1% 41.0% 48.4% 45.2%

Total cash flow 25 45 55 -6 -5 12 Total cash flow 80% 22% -111% -17% -340%

Balance Sheet Balance Sheet

ASSETS ASSETS

Non-current assets Non-current assets

Tangible assets 26 40 70 85 95 115 Tangible assets 54% 75% 21% 12% 21%

Intangible assets 35 40 47 56 60 62 Intangible assets 14% 18% 19% 7% 3%

Total non-current assets 61 80 117 141 155 177 Total non-current assets 31% 46% 21% 10% 14%

Current assets Current assets

Inventory 57 63 80 100 129 195 Inventory 11% 27% 25% 29% 51%

Receivables 85 95 110 150 189 225 Receivables 12% 16% 36% 26% 19%

Cash 16 20 8 5 6 7 Cash 25% -60% -38% 20% 17%

Total current assets 158 178 198 255 324 427 Total current assets 13% 11% 29% 27% 32%

ALL ASSETS 219 258 315 396 479 604 ALL ASSETS 18% 22% 26% 21% 26%

LIABILITIES LIABILITIES

Current liabilities Current liabilities

Trade payables 65 85 110 150 180 220 Trade payables 31% 29% 36% 20% 22%

Short term loans 25 30 37 40 45 50 Short term loans 20% 23% 8% 13% 11%

Total current liabilities 90 115 147 190 225 270 Total current liabilities 28% 28% 29% 18% 20%

Non-current liabilities Non-current liabilities

Provisions 20 10 23 40 45 50 Provisions -50% 130% 74% 13% 11%

Long term loans 25 45 50 55 60 75 Long term loans 80% 11% 10% 9% 25%

ALL LIABILITIES 135 170 220 285 330 395 ALL LIABILITIES 26% 29% 30% 16% 20%

EQUITY EQUITY

Retained earnings 24 28 35 51 89 149 Retained earnings 17% 25% 46% 75% 67%

Common stock 60 60 60 60 60 60 Common stock 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

ALL EQUITY 84 88 95 111 149 209 ALL EQUITY 5% 8% 17% 34% 40%

EQUITY + LIABILITIES 219 258 315 396 479 604 EQUITY + LIABILITIES 18% 22% 26% 21% 26%

Education sector growing at 5% per annum

Sheet2

Sheet3

Sheet1

Cass Educational Services plc

(Education sector growing at 5% per annum)

Annual growth rate comparisons

Income Statement 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Income Statement 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013

Revenue 250 275 314 350 425 500 Revenue 10% 14% 11% 21% 18%

Cost of Goods Sold 165 180 195 210 240 270 Cost of Goods Sold 9% 8% 8% 14% 13%

Gross Profit 85 95 119 140 185 230 Gross Profit 12% 25% 18% 32% 24% Gross margin 34% 35% 38% 40% 44% 46%

Operating Costs 50 52 55 58 62 70 Operating Costs 4% 6% 5% 7% 13%

Operating Profit 35 43 64 82 123 160 Operating Profit 23% 49% 28% 50% 30% Operating margin 14% 16% 20% 23% 29% 32%

Interest 10 12 15 17 20 25 Interest 20% 25% 13% 18% 25%

Pre-tax Profit 25 31 49 65 103 135 Pre-tax Profit 24% 58% 33% 58% 31% Pre-tax margin 10% 11% 16% 19% 24% 27%

Taxation 7.5 9.3 15 20 31 41 Taxation 24% 58% 33% 58% 31%

Net Profit 17.5 21.7 34 46 72 95 Net Profit 24% 58% 33% 58% 31% Net margin 7% 8% 11% 13% 17% 19%

Dividends paid 7 10 15 20 35 45 Dividends paid 43% 50% 33% 75% 29%

Cash Flow Cash Flow Asset turnover 1.14 1.07 1.00 0.88 0.89 0.83

Operating 35 45 45 -1 -5 12 Operating 29% 0% – – + Return on assets 8.0% 8.4% 10.9% 11.5% 15.1% 15.6%

Investing -15 -15 -10 -10 -15 -15 Investing 0% -33% 0% 50% 0% Leverage 2.61 2.93 3.32 3.57 3.21 2.89

Financing 5 15 20 5 15 15 Financing 200% 33% -75% 200% 0% Return on equity 20.8% 24.7% 36.1% 41.0% 48.4% 45.2%

Total cash flow 25 45 55 -6 -5 12 Total cash flow 80% 22% -111% -17% -340%

Balance Sheet Balance Sheet

ASSETS ASSETS

Non-current assets Non-current assets

Tangible assets 26 40 70 85 95 115 Tangible assets 54% 75% 21% 12% 21%

Intangible assets 35 40 47 56 60 62 Intangible assets 14% 18% 19% 7% 3%

Total non-current assets 61 80 117 141 155 177 Total non-current assets 31% 46% 21% 10% 14%

Current assets Current assets

Inventory 57 63 80 100 129 195 Inventory 11% 27% 25% 29% 51%

Receivables 85 95 110 150 189 225 Receivables 12% 16% 36% 26% 19%

Cash 16 20 8 5 6 7 Cash 25% -60% -38% 20% 17%

Total current assets 158 178 198 255 324 427 Total current assets 13% 11% 29% 27% 32%

ALL ASSETS 219 258 315 396 479 604 ALL ASSETS 18% 22% 26% 21% 26%

LIABILITIES LIABILITIES

Current liabilities Current liabilities

Trade payables 65 85 110 150 180 220 Trade payables 31% 29% 36% 20% 22%

Short term loans 25 30 37 40 45 50 Short term loans 20% 23% 8% 13% 11%

Total current liabilities 90 115 147 190 225 270 Total current liabilities 28% 28% 29% 18% 20%

Non-current liabilities Non-current liabilities

Provisions 20 10 23 40 45 50 Provisions -50% 130% 74% 13% 11%

Long term loans 25 45 50 55 60 75 Long term loans 80% 11% 10% 9% 25%

ALL LIABILITIES 135 170 220 285 330 395 ALL LIABILITIES 26% 29% 30% 16% 20%

EQUITY EQUITY

Retained earnings 24 28 35 51 89 149 Retained earnings 17% 25% 46% 75% 67%

Common stock 60 60 60 60 60 60 Common stock 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

ALL EQUITY 84 88 95 111 149 209 ALL EQUITY 5% 8% 17% 34% 40%

EQUITY + LIABILITIES 219 258 315 396 479 604 EQUITY + LIABILITIES 18% 22% 26% 21% 26%

Education sector growing at 5% per annum

Sheet2

Sheet3

Sheet1

Cass Educational Services plc

(Education sector growing at 5% per annum)

Income Statement 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013

Revenue 250 275 314 350 425 500

Cost of Goods Sold 165 180 195 210 240 270

Gross Profit 85 95 119 140 185 230

Operating Costs 50 52 55 58 62 70

Operating Profit 35 43 64 82 123 160

Interest 10 12 15 17 20 25

Pre-tax Profit 25 31 49 65 103 135

Taxation 7.5 9.3 15 20 31 41

Net Profit 17.5 21.7 34 46 72 95

Dividends paid 7 10 15 20 35 45

Cash Flow

Operating 35 45 45 -1 -5 12

Investing -15 -15 -10 -10 -15 -15

Financing 5 15 20 5 15 15

Total cash flow 25 45 55 -6 -5 12

Balance Sheet

ASSETS

Non-current assets

Tangible assets 26 40 70 85 95 115

Intangible assets 35 40 47 56 60 62

Total non-current assets 61 80 117 141 155 177

Current assets

Inventory 57 63 80 100 129 195

Receivables 85 95 110 150 189 225

Cash 16 20 8 5 6 7

Total current assets 158 178 198 255 324 427

ALL ASSETS 219 258 315 396 479 604

LIABILITIES

Current liabilities

Trade payables 65 85 110 150 180 220

Short term loans 25 30 37 40 45 50

Total current liabilities 90 115 147 190 225 270

Non-current liabilities

Provisions 20 10 23 40 45 50

Long term loans 25 45 50 55 60 75

ALL LIABILITIES 135 170 220 285 330 395

EQUITY

Retained earnings 24 28 35 51 89 149

Common stock 60 60 60 60 60 60

ALL EQUITY 84 88 95 111 149 209

EQUITY + LIABILITIES 219 258 315 396 479 604

Education sector growing at 5% per annum

Sheet2

Sheet3

Sheet1

Cass Educational Services plc

(Education sector growing at 5% per annum)

Annual growth rate comparisons

Income Statement 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Income Statement 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013

Revenue 250 275 314 350 425 500 Revenue 10% 14% 11% 21% 18% Gross margin 34% 35% 38% 40% 44% 46%

Cost of Goods Sold 165 180 195 210 240 270 Cost of Goods Sold 9% 8% 8% 14% 13% Operating margin 14% 16% 20% 23% 29% 32%

Gross Profit 85 95 119 140 185 230 Gross Profit 12% 25% 18% 32% 24% Pre-tax margin 10% 11% 16% 19% 24% 27%

Operating Costs 50 52 55 58 62 70 Operating Costs 4% 6% 5% 7% 13% Net margin 7% 8% 11% 13% 17% 19%

Operating Profit 35 43 64 82 123 160 Operating Profit 23% 49% 28% 50% 30% Asset turnover 1.14 1.07 1.00 0.88 0.89 0.83

Interest 10 12 15 17 20 25 Interest 20% 25% 13% 18% 25% Return on assets 8.0% 8.4% 10.9% 11.5% 15.1% 15.6%

Pre-tax Profit 25 31 49 65 103 135 Pre-tax Profit 24% 58% 33% 58% 31% Leverage 2.61 2.93 3.32 3.57 3.21 2.89

Taxation 7.5 9.3 15 20 31 41 Taxation 24% 58% 33% 58% 31% Return on equity 20.8% 24.7% 36.1% 41.0% 48.4% 45.2%

Net Profit 17.5 21.7 34 46 72 95 Net Profit 24% 58% 33% 58% 31%

Dividends paid 7 10 15 20 35 45 Dividends paid 43% 50% 33% 75% 29%

Cash Flow Cash Flow

Operating 35 45 45 -1 -5 12 Operating 29% 0% – – +

Investing -15 -15 -10 -10 -15 -15 Investing 0% -33% 0% 50% 0%

Financing 5 15 20 5 15 15 Financing 200% 33% -75% 200% 0%

Total cash flow 25 45 55 -6 -5 12 Total cash flow 80% 22% -111% -17% -340%

Balance Sheet Balance Sheet

ASSETS ASSETS

Non-current assets Non-current assets

Tangible assets 26 40 70 85 95 115 Tangible assets 54% 75% 21% 12% 21%

Intangible assets 35 40 47 56 60 62 Intangible assets 14% 18% 19% 7% 3%

Total non-current assets 61 80 117 141 155 177 Total non-current assets 31% 46% 21% 10% 14%

Current assets Current assets

Inventory 57 63 80 100 129 195 Inventory 11% 27% 25% 29% 51%

Receivables 85 95 110 150 189 225 Receivables 12% 16% 36% 26% 19%

Cash 16 20 8 5 6 7 Cash 25% -60% -38% 20% 17%

Total current assets 158 178 198 255 324 427 Total current assets 13% 11% 29% 27% 32%

ALL ASSETS 219 258 315 396 479 604 ALL ASSETS 18% 22% 26% 21% 26%

LIABILITIES LIABILITIES

Current liabilities Current liabilities

Trade payables 65 85 110 150 180 220 Trade payables 31% 29% 36% 20% 22%

Short term loans 25 30 37 40 45 50 Short term loans 20% 23% 8% 13% 11%

Total current liabilities 90 115 147 190 225 270 Total current liabilities 28% 28% 29% 18% 20%

Non-current liabilities Non-current liabilities

Provisions 20 10 23 40 45 50 Provisions -50% 130% 74% 13% 11%

Long term loans 25 45 50 55 60 75 Long term loans 80% 11% 10% 9% 25%

ALL LIABILITIES 135 170 220 285 330 395 ALL LIABILITIES 26% 29% 30% 16% 20%

EQUITY EQUITY

Retained earnings 24 28 35 51 89 149 Retained earnings 17% 25% 46% 75% 67%

Common stock 60 60 60 60 60 60 Common stock 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

ALL EQUITY 84 88 95 111 149 209 ALL EQUITY 5% 8% 17% 34% 40%

EQUITY + LIABILITIES 219 258 315 396 479 604 EQUITY + LIABILITIES 18% 22% 26% 21% 26%

Education sector growing at 5% per annum

Sheet2

Sheet3

Sheet1

Cass Educational Services plc

(Education sector growing at 5% per annum)

Annual growth rate comparisons

Income Statement 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Income Statement 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013

Revenue 250 275 314 350 425 500 Revenue 10% 14% 11% 21% 18% Gross margin 34% 35% 38% 40% 44% 46%

Cost of Goods Sold 165 180 195 210 240 270 Cost of Goods Sold 9% 8% 8% 14% 13% Operating margin 14% 16% 20% 23% 29% 32%

Gross Profit 85 95 119 140 185 230 Gross Profit 12% 25% 18% 32% 24% Pre-tax margin 10% 11% 16% 19% 24% 27%

Operating Costs 50 52 55 58 62 70 Operating Costs 4% 6% 5% 7% 13% Net margin 7% 8% 11% 13% 17% 19%

Operating Profit 35 43 64 82 123 160 Operating Profit 23% 49% 28% 50% 30% Asset turnover 1.14 1.07 1.00 0.88 0.89 0.83

Interest 10 12 15 17 20 25 Interest 20% 25% 13% 18% 25% Return on assets 8.0% 8.4% 10.9% 11.5% 15.1% 15.6%

Pre-tax Profit 25 31 49 65 103 135 Pre-tax Profit 24% 58% 33% 58% 31% Leverage 2.61 2.93 3.32 3.57 3.21 2.89

Taxation 7.5 9.3 15 20 31 41 Taxation 24% 58% 33% 58% 31% Return on equity 20.8% 24.7% 36.1% 41.0% 48.4% 45.2%

Net Profit 17.5 21.7 34 46 72 95 Net Profit 24% 58% 33% 58% 31%

Dividends paid 7 10 15 20 35 45 Dividends paid 43% 50% 33% 75% 29%

Cash Flow Cash Flow

Operating 35 45 45 -1 -5 12 Operating 29% 0% – – +

Investing -15 -15 -10 -10 -15 -15 Investing 0% -33% 0% 50% 0%

Financing 5 15 20 5 15 15 Financing 200% 33% -75% 200% 0%

Total cash flow 25 45 55 -6 -5 12 Total cash flow 80% 22% -111% -17% -340%

Balance Sheet Balance Sheet

ASSETS ASSETS ASSETS

Non-current assets Non-current assets Non-current assets

Tangible assets 26 40 70 85 95 115 Tangible assets 54% 75% 21% 12% 21% Tangible assets 54% 75% 21% 12% 21%

Intangible assets 35 40 47 56 60 62 Intangible assets 14% 18% 19% 7% 3% Intangible assets 14% 18% 19% 7% 3%

Total non-current assets 61 80 117 141 155 177 Total non-current assets 31% 46% 21% 10% 14% Total non-current assets 31% 46% 21% 10% 14%

Current assets Current assets Current assets

Inventory 57 63 80 100 129 195 Inventory 11% 27% 25% 29% 51% Inventory 11% 27% 25% 29% 51%

Receivables 85 95 110 150 189 225 Receivables 12% 16% 36% 26% 19% Receivables 12% 16% 36% 26% 19%

Cash 16 20 8 5 6 7 Cash 25% -60% -38% 20% 17% Cash 25% -60% -38% 20% 17%

Total current assets 158 178 198 255 324 427 Total current assets 13% 11% 29% 27% 32% Total current assets 13% 11% 29% 27% 32%

ALL ASSETS 219 258 315 396 479 604 ALL ASSETS 18% 22% 26% 21% 26% ALL ASSETS 18% 22% 26% 21% 26%

LIABILITIES LIABILITIES

Current liabilities Current liabilities Revenue 10% 14% 11% 21% 18%

Trade payables 65 85 110 150 180 220 Trade payables 31% 29% 36% 20% 22%

Short term loans 25 30 37 40 45 50 Short term loans 20% 23% 8% 13% 11%

Total current liabilities 90 115 147 190 225 270 Total current liabilities 28% 28% 29% 18% 20%

Non-current liabilities Non-current liabilities

Provisions 20 10 23 40 45 50 Provisions -50% 130% 74% 13% 11%

Long term loans 25 45 50 55 60 75 Long term loans 80% 11% 10% 9% 25%

ALL LIABILITIES 135 170 220 285 330 395 ALL LIABILITIES 26% 29% 30% 16% 20%

EQUITY EQUITY

Retained earnings 24 28 35 51 89 149 Retained earnings 17% 25% 46% 75% 67%

Common stock 60 60 60 60 60 60 Common stock 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

ALL EQUITY 84 88 95 111 149 209 ALL EQUITY 5% 8% 17% 34% 40%

EQUITY + LIABILITIES 219 258 315 396 479 604 EQUITY + LIABILITIES 18% 22% 26% 21% 26%

Education sector growing at 5% per annum

Sheet2

Sheet3

Sheet1

Cass Educational Services plc

(Education sector growing at 5% per annum)

Annual growth rate comparisons

Income Statement 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Income Statement 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013

Revenue 250 275 314 350 425 500 Revenue 10% 14% 11% 21% 18% Gross margin 34% 35% 38% 40% 44% 46%

Cost of Goods Sold 165 180 195 210 240 270 Cost of Goods Sold 9% 8% 8% 14% 13% Operating margin 14% 16% 20% 23% 29% 32%

Gross Profit 85 95 119 140 185 230 Gross Profit 12% 25% 18% 32% 24% Pre-tax margin 10% 11% 16% 19% 24% 27%

Operating Costs 50 52 55 58 62 70 Operating Costs 4% 6% 5% 7% 13% Net margin 7% 8% 11% 13% 17% 19%

Operating Profit 35 43 64 82 123 160 Operating Profit 23% 49% 28% 50% 30% Asset turnover 1.14 1.07 1.00 0.88 0.89 0.83

Interest 10 12 15 17 20 25 Interest 20% 25% 13% 18% 25% Return on assets 8.0% 8.4% 10.9% 11.5% 15.1% 15.6%

Pre-tax Profit 25 31 49 65 103 135 Pre-tax Profit 24% 58% 33% 58% 31% Leverage 1.61 1.93 2.32 2.57 2.21 1.89

Taxation 7.5 9.3 15 20 31 41 Taxation 24% 58% 33% 58% 31% Return on equity 12.8% 16.2% 25.2% 29.5% 33.3% 29.6%

Net Profit 17.5 21.7 34 46 72 95 Net Profit 24% 58% 33% 58% 31%

Dividends paid 7 10 15 20 35 45 Dividends paid 43% 50% 33% 75% 29%

Cash Flow Cash Flow

Operating 35 45 45 -1 -5 12 Operating 29% 0% – – +

Investing -15 -15 -10 -10 -15 -15 Investing 0% -33% 0% 50% 0%

Financing 5 15 20 5 15 15 Financing 200% 33% -75% 200% 0%

Total cash flow 25 45 55 -6 -5 12 Total cash flow 80% 22% -111% -17% -340%

Balance Sheet Balance Sheet

ASSETS ASSETS

Non-current assets Non-current assets

Tangible assets 26 40 70 85 95 115 Tangible assets 54% 75% 21% 12% 21%

Intangible assets 35 40 47 56 60 62 Intangible assets 14% 18% 19% 7% 3%

Total non-current assets 61 80 117 141 155 177 Total non-current assets 31% 46% 21% 10% 14%

Current assets Current assets

Inventory 57 63 80 100 129 195 Inventory 11% 27% 25% 29% 51%

Receivables 85 95 110 150 189 225 Receivables 12% 16% 36% 26% 19%

Cash 16 20 8 5 6 7 Cash 25% -60% -38% 20% 17%

Total current assets 158 178 198 255 324 427 Total current assets 13% 11% 29% 27% 32%

ALL ASSETS 219 258 315 396 479 604 ALL ASSETS 18% 22% 26% 21% 26%

LIABILITIES LIABILITIES

Current liabilities Current liabilities

Trade payables 65 85 110 150 180 220 Trade payables 31% 29% 36% 20% 22%

Short term loans 25 30 37 40 45 50 Short term loans 20% 23% 8% 13% 11%

Total current liabilities 90 115 147 190 225 270 Total current liabilities 28% 28% 29% 18% 20%

Non-current liabilities Non-current liabilities

Provisions 20 10 23 40 45 50 Provisions -50% 130% 74% 13% 11%

Long term loans 25 45 50 55 60 75 Long term loans 80% 11% 10% 9% 25%

ALL LIABILITIES 135 170 220 285 330 395 ALL LIABILITIES 26% 29% 30% 16% 20%

EQUITY EQUITY

Retained earnings 24 28 35 51 89 149 Retained earnings 17% 25% 46% 75% 67%

Common stock 60 60 60 60 60 60 Common stock 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

ALL EQUITY 84 88 95 111 149 209 ALL EQUITY 5% 8% 17% 34% 40%

EQUITY + LIABILITIES 219 258 315 396 479 604 EQUITY + LIABILITIES 18% 22% 26% 21% 26%

Education sector growing at 5% per annum

Sheet2

Sheet3

Sheet1

Cass Educational Services plc

(Education sector growing at 5% per annum)

Annual growth rate comparisons

Income Statement 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Income Statement 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013

Revenue 250 275 314 350 425 500 Revenue 10% 14% 11% 21% 18% Gross margin 34% 35% 38% 40% 44% 46%

Cost of Goods Sold 165 180 195 210 240 270 Cost of Goods Sold 9% 8% 8% 14% 13% Operating margin 14% 16% 20% 23% 29% 32%

Gross Profit 85 95 119 140 185 230 Gross Profit 12% 25% 18% 32% 24% Pre-tax margin 10% 11% 16% 19% 24% 27%

Operating Costs 50 52 55 58 62 70 Operating Costs 4% 6% 5% 7% 13% Net margin 7% 8% 11% 13% 17% 19%

Operating Profit 35 43 64 82 123 160 Operating Profit 23% 49% 28% 50% 30% Asset turnover 1.14 1.07 1.00 0.88 0.89 0.83

Interest 10 12 15 17 20 25 Interest 20% 25% 13% 18% 25% Return on assets 8.0% 8.4% 10.9% 11.5% 15.1% 15.6%

Pre-tax Profit 25 31 49 65 103 135 Pre-tax Profit 24% 58% 33% 58% 31% Leverage 2.61 2.93 3.32 3.57 3.21 2.89

Taxation 7.5 9.3 15 20 31 41 Taxation 24% 58% 33% 58% 31% Return on equity 20.8% 24.7% 36.1% 41.0% 48.4% 45.2%

Net Profit 17.5 21.7 34 46 72 95 Net Profit 24% 58% 33% 58% 31%

Dividends paid 7 10 15 20 35 45 Dividends paid 43% 50% 33% 75% 29%

Cash Flow Cash Flow

Operating 35 45 45 -1 -5 12 Operating 29% 0% – – +

Investing -15 -15 -10 -10 -15 -15 Investing 0% -33% 0% 50% 0%

Financing 5 15 20 5 15 15 Financing 200% 33% -75% 200% 0%

Total cash flow 25 45 55 -6 -5 12 Total cash flow 80% 22% -111% -17% -340% 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013

Inventory turnover 3.0 2.7 2.3 2.1 1.7

Balance Sheet Balance Sheet Asset turnover 1.15 1.10 0.98 0.97 0.92

ASSETS ASSETS Days of Inventory in Hand 122 134 156 174 219

Non-current assets Non-current assets Days Sales Outstanding 119 119 136 146 151

Tangible assets 26 40 70 85 95 115 Tangible assets 54% 75% 21% 12% 21% Days Payables 147 168 206 224 217

Intangible assets 35 40 47 56 60 62 Intangible assets 14% 18% 19% 7% 3% Cash Conversion Cycle 94 85 86 96 153

Total non-current assets 61 80 117 141 155 177 Total non-current assets 31% 46% 21% 10% 14%

Current assets Current assets Current ratio 1.8 1.5 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.6

Inventory 57 63 80 100 129 195 Inventory 11% 27% 25% 29% 51% Quick ratio 1.1 1.0 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9

Receivables 85 95 110 150 189 225 Receivables 12% 16% 36% 26% 19% Interest cover 3.5 3.6 4.3 4.8 6.2 6.4

Cash 16 20 8 5 6 7 Cash 25% -60% -38% 20% 17% Debt/equity 0.4 0.6 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.6

Total current assets 158 178 198 255 324 427 Total current assets 13% 11% 29% 27% 32%

ALL ASSETS 219 258 315 396 479 604 ALL ASSETS 18% 22% 26% 21% 26%

LIABILITIES LIABILITIES

Current liabilities Current liabilities

Trade payables 65 85 110 150 180 220 Trade payables 31% 29% 36% 20% 22%

Short term loans 25 30 37 40 45 50 Short term loans 20% 23% 8% 13% 11%

Total current liabilities 90 115 147 190 225 270 Total current liabilities 28% 28% 29% 18% 20%

Non-current liabilities Non-current liabilities

Provisions 20 10 23 40 45 50 Provisions -50% 130% 74% 13% 11%

Long term loans 25 45 50 55 60 75 Long term loans 80% 11% 10% 9% 25%

ALL LIABILITIES 135 170 220 285 330 395 ALL LIABILITIES 26% 29% 30% 16% 20%

EQUITY EQUITY

Retained earnings 24 28 35 51 89 149 Retained earnings 17% 25% 46% 75% 67%

Common stock 60 60 60 60 60 60 Common stock 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

ALL EQUITY 84 88 95 111 149 209 ALL EQUITY 5% 8% 17% 34% 40%

EQUITY + LIABILITIES 219 258 315 396 479 604 EQUITY + LIABILITIES 18% 22% 26% 21% 26%

Education sector growing at 5% per annum ASSETS

Non-current assets

Tangible assets 54% 75% 21% 12% 21%

Intangible assets 14% 18% 19% 7% 3%

Total non-current assets 31% 46% 21% 10% 14%

Current assets

Inventory 11% 27% 25% 29% 51%

Receivables 12% 16% 36% 26% 19%

Cash 25% -60% -38% 20% 17%

Total current assets 13% 11% 29% 27% 32%

ALL ASSETS 18% 22% 26% 21% 26%

Revenue 10% 14% 11% 21% 18%

Sheet2

Sheet3

Sheet1

Cass Educational Services plc

(Education sector growing at 5% per annum)

Income Statement 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013

Revenue 250 275 314 350 425 500

Cost of Goods Sold 165 180 195 210 240 270

Gross Profit 85 95 119 140 185 230

Operating Costs 50 52 55 58 62 70

Operating Profit 35 43 64 82 123 160

Interest 10 12 15 17 20 25

Pre-tax Profit 25 31 49 65 103 135

Taxation 7.5 9.3 15 20 31 41

Net Profit 17.5 21.7 34 46 72 95

Dividends paid 7 10 15 20 35 45

Cash Flow

Operating 35 45 45 -1 -5 12

Investing -15 -15 -10 -10 -15 -15

Financing 5 15 20 5 15 15

Total cash flow 25 45 55 -6 -5 12

Balance Sheet

ASSETS

Non-current assets

Tangible assets 26 40 70 85 95 115

Intangible assets 35 40 47 56 60 62

Total non-current assets 61 80 117 141 155 177

Current assets

Inventory 57 63 80 100 129 195

Receivables 85 95 110 150 189 225

Cash 16 20 8 5 6 7

Total current assets 158 178 198 255 324 427

ALL ASSETS 219 258 315 396 479 604

LIABILITIES

Current liabilities

Trade payables 65 85 110 150 180 220

Short term loans 25 30 37 40 45 50

Total current liabilities 90 115 147 190 225 270

Non-current liabilities

Provisions 20 10 23 40 45 50

Long term loans 25 45 50 55 60 75

ALL LIABILITIES 135 170 220 285 330 395

EQUITY

Retained earnings 24 28 35 51 89 149

Common stock 60 60 60 60 60 60

ALL EQUITY 84 88 95 111 149 209

EQUITY + LIABILITIES 219 258 315 396 479 604

Education sector growing at 5% per annum

Sheet2

Sheet3

AF1100 – Financial Institutions

Tutorial Questions – Week 5

Chapter 3 (H&B) – Questions for Discussion 1-9
Question 1 – Deposit taking financial institutions are the institutions normally called banks or building societies, and they main activities are to take deposits and give out loans. Non-deposit taking institutions provide other services (e.g. insurance, investment management), so when individuals or corporations transfer money to these institutions it is never solely for safekeeping (as when deposits are made in banks or building societies), but for other reasons, which are the products or services that these other institutions provide.
Sections 3.2 and 3.5 of the book contain details of the characteristics of banks and building societies and chapter 4 discusses the various types of non-deposit taking institutions and the different services/products they offer.
Regarding the difference between discretionary and contractual saving, it follows the meaning of the words, i.e. discretionary is down to the choice of the saver how much and when he/she saves, whereas contractual, the amount and frequency of the savings is still decided by the saver, but in this case, they enter into a contract by which there is an expectation of when and how much money is deposited in the savings plan. See page 18 of the book for definition.
Question 2 and Question 3
The table on page 66 and section 3.3 of the book detail what each of the money aggregates include and also how money is created in the system.
Important to notice the very large difference between M0 and M4, which is driven by the fact that M0 is essentially a metric of how much money had been issued, whereas M4 is a metric of how much money has been issued plus how much money has been created through subsequent depositing and lending.
Question 4 – The functions of the Bank of England (common with a number of other central banks) are listed and explained in section 3.1 of the book.
As with other organisation, there will be different “departments” of the BoE responsible for the different functions, and therefore situations of conflict will arise when actions taken or incentivised to achieve one function will clash with the actions taken or incentivised to achieve another objective.
For example, if the BoE is trying to promote growth of the economy through the conduct of monetary policy, it will incentivise banks to give out loans for investment and/or consumption, but this may lead to the reduction of the reserve ratios of banks, which may be problematic for the achievement of the role of supervisor of the banking system to ensure the banks are not taking too many risks.
Question 5 – As you can see in the box on page 68 of the book, Bank’s reserves are their holdings of notes and coins plus operational deposits at the central bank and the reserve ratio is calculated as the reserves over customer deposits.
Currently the reserve ratio agreed by all banks (mandatory) is a minimum of 12.5%, while finance houses have a minimum ratio of 10%.
Page 62 of the book includes the balance sheet of all banks in 2005 and if you calculate the ratio using the indicated metrics, you’ll find a reserve ratio of only approximately 0.3% (10,889/3,465,704), which is very low.
Some banks, if they feel their assets are particularly risky will choose to hold higher (prudential) reserve ratios.
Question 6 – The concept of lender of last resort is addressed in section 3.1.2 of the book, and it is a role that central banks in general have, which consists in ensuring banks who need cash but where unable to access it in the system, can borrow from the central bank.
Considering this lending is short term in nature, central banks have the opportunity to make money more or less accessible and/or more or less expensive in line with their objectives (monetary policy) and in so doing affecting the short term interest rates.
Question 7 – Interest rate rises makes money more expensive thus reducing the incentives for taking out loans, while making saving more rewarding. That is the reason why when a central bank is trying to grow the economy, it will keep rates low (borrowing is cheap => companies borrow for investment => more production capability => more jobs => more wealth), while if it still trying to slow down the economy (e.g. inflation is high) the central bank will increase interest rates.
Question 8 – The principle of the base multiplier is that but lending banks multiply the money available in the system. For example £100 are issued by the BoE and put into the system, one banks takes it and lends £80 to another bank, who then lends £64 and so on, thus creating money.
In this brief example, I’m assuming each bank lends 80% of the money they have and in reality the amount is driven reserve ratio, with the multiplier effect being calculated as 1/reserve ratio. Assuming the 12.5% reserve ratio mentioned in Q5 above, the multiplier would be 1/0.125, meaning that each £1 issued by the BoE, is multiplied and thus becomes £8 available in the system
Question 9 – In the two tables below are examples of a bank (first) and a building society (second) balance sheet. There is also an Income Statement for the building society. The most obvious different is the diversity of elements in the balance sheet of a bank compared to a building society.

Chapter 4 (H&B) – Questions for Discussion 1-7
Question 1 – See answer to Question 1 for chapter 3 above.
Question 2 – As seen in discussion the differences, customers look essentially for deposits and/or loans from banks/building societies, while looking for other products and/or services (e.g. insurance, pension savings, other savings) from NDTIs.
Question 3 – Please see section 4.2 in the book, with definitions in the box on page 100.
Question 4 – Holdings at the end of the year – stock of assets (or liabilities) at a particular moment. It is data that is used to compile a balance sheet.
Net acquisitions – quantity of assets (or liabilities) acquired during the period. This is flow data and for financial institutions it must match the inflow of funds from savers during the period in question.
Turnover – the total value of transactions (the sum of purchases and sales) during a period of time. The is also a flow data but the figures normally will be much larger than the net acquisitions.
Question 5 – mortality rates being less predictable implies an increase in uncertainty, including at what point in time payments will need to be made by the insurance company. In order to offset this increase in risk, the insurance company will need to hold a higher proportion of less risky assets (bonds and cash vs. shares) in order to ensure that when cash is needed, the loss of value (which can be very high if the market is in a downturn) is minimal when selling the assets. If the mortality rate is more predictable, the point in time when cash payments will occur will also be more predictable, allowing the company to withstand a downturn, as it knows the probability of the market recovering prior to the required payment is high.
Question 6 – As explained in the lecture (see slide 14 lecture 5), the two main tools at the disposal of the insurance companies are screening of potential customers and the implementation of penalty and rewards schemes, as for example no-accident discounts in car insurance.
Question 7 – Because closed-end funds trade on a public exchange, the price of the units will be determined by the market. As such, at any point in time the price may trade at either a premium or discount to the stated NAV. Over the longer term, the share price and the NAV should converge.

AF1100 – Financial Institutions

Tutorial Questions – Week 2

Question 1 – Identify six money market instruments (i.e. financial assets traded in the money market and briefly discuss their characteristics.
If you look at different sources of information or different countries, there will be different lists of money market products indicated, so here is a (non-exhaustive) list of the main products:
Treasury Bills: the most popular instrument, with varying short-term maturities, normally between 14 and 364 days (varies from country to country, they are issued at a discount meaning the issues receives a lower amount than the face value and on maturity it pays back the face value.
Commercial bills: essentially a bill of exchange associated with the trade of goods. The seller draws (or issues via its bank) the commercial bill, which the buyer accepts confirming they will make payment on the agreed date. The advantage for the seller is that the bill is a marketable financial instrument, so they will be able to get paid as and when they need by selling the bill.
Certificates of Deposit: also known as CDs, they are negotiable term deposits accepted by commercial banks. The receiving institutions agrees to pay interest on a deposit in return for the depositor guaranteed the money will be left untouched for the period of the CD. Normally it is issued through a promissory note and the maturities are between 3 months and 1 year in the money market (CDs can also be used as a longer-term product).
Commercial Paper: short term unsecured debt instrument issued normally by companies to finance working capital (short term) needs. As Treasury bills, CP tends to be issued at a discount, with no interest payments while in existence and the full principal payable at maturity.
Call Money: short term (normally from overnight to 14 days) interest-paying loan between financial institutions which, as indicated by its name, is payable on demand. Call money does not have a maturity date or payment schedule and instead the lender will call the loan as and when they want and will receive principal and interest at that time.
Question 2 – The table below is an extract from existing Government Bonds (Gilts).

Issuer

Coupon (%)

Maturity

Price

HM Treasury

GBP | GB00BM8Z2S21 | BM8Z2S2

0.875

31 July 2033

92.275

HM Treasury

GBP | GB00BMGR2791 | BMGR279

0.125

31 January 2024

97.370

Treasury 0.5% GILT 22/07/22 GBP1

GBP | GB00BD0PCK97 | BD0PCK9

0.500

22 July 2022

99.900

Treasury 0.75% GILT 22/07/23 GBP0.01

GBP | GB00BF0HZ991 | BF0HZ99

0.750

22 July 2023

99.130

Treasury 1,5/8% 22/10/2028

GBP | GB00BFX0ZL78 | BFX0ZL7

1.625

22 October 2028

101.140

Treasury 1.25% 2027

GBP | GB00BDRHNP05 | BDRHNP0

1.250

22 July 2027

99.100

Answer the following questions:
1. What is the meaning of each of the columns above?
Column 1 indicates the issuer (UK Treasury), the currency and the code of the bonds/gilts
Column 2 is the coupon rate, i.e. the interest rate that applies to the face value of the bond to calculate the cash payment.
Column 3 is the date at which the bond expires or matures, i.e. when the principal is repaid by the issuer to the investor that owns them at the time.
(in reality, the information included in columns 2 and 3 is also included in column 1)
Column 4 has the bond price.
2. Why is one bond selling above £100 and all others selling below?
In the UK the face value of bonds is normally £100 and bond prices are a function of two interest rates: the coupon rate and the yield to maturity. If the coupon rate (indicative of the return you are receiving) is lower than the yield to maturity (which reflects the return you want to receive), then you are receiving less than you want, so you’ll be willing to pay less than the face value and the bond is selling “at a discount”. This is the case with all bar the 5th gilt, meaning the return required by investors to invest in short to medium term gilts is above 1.25%. The only bond selling “at a premium”, i.e. with a price above £100 is the one maturing in October 2028, which has a coupon rate of 1.625%, indicating that the yield to maturity of these bonds is below the coupon rate, so investors are willing to pay more than the face value to buy this gilt.
3. Considering the issuer is the same, why is the coupon rate different from bond to bond?
The coupon rate is fixed at the time the bond is issued and in, the majority of instances, it is a reflection of the rate being offered by bonds of similar level of risk on the market at the time of issue. As such, over time (especially for long term bonds, where market interest rates have longer to change) some coupon rates will be very different from the market interest rates.
Question 3 – From the screenshot below (taken from yahoo finance, containing data for a company listed in the London Stock Market), identify six pieces of information relevant for an investor.

A screenshot such as this has a lot of information, so it is hard to identify the most relevant, but some are essential in order to understand the others, so the most fundamental are:
· Name of the company: Diageo
· Current share price: 3,632 (don’t forget to always quote the units when referring to any number…so)
· Currency is GBp, sometimes mentioned as GBX, not GBP as prices are quoted in pence, so this price is £36.32
· Volume is the number of shares traded today and the average is the daily average
· Market cap is the value of the company, calculated as share price times number of shares
· 52-week range in the highest and lowest price over the last year, from where you can conclude that the current price is somewhere in the middle, closer to the highest (see chart)
The second column contains information that is particularly relevant for investors, such as the beta (measure of market risk), P/E ratio (indicator of markets expectations regarding company’s future performance) and forward dividend and yield (expected dividend and return received on dividend alone, i.e. if share price did not change)
Question 4 – The screen shot below is taken from the Bank of England’s website:
Based on it, answer the following questions:
1. If this was the exchange rate at which you could buy and sell currencies, if you went to the bank with £1, how many Canadian dollars would you be able to buy?
£1 would allow you to buy 1.7258 Canadian dollars
2. If this was the exchange rate at which you could buy and sell currencies, if you went to the bank with €1, how many pounds would you be able to buy?
€1 would allow you to buy 1/1.1930 or £0.8382 i.e. 83.82p
3. If you went to your local bank and pay tourist exchange rates, how many Japanese yens do you think you would be able to buy with £100?

These are the “central” exchange rates, so if the bank used this same rate to buy and sell currencies, they would not make any revenue on the transactions. As such, a spread is added and subtracted to generate the actual exchange rate at which a transaction will take place. In interbanking trade, this spread might be 1 to 5 pips (1 pip is one hundredth of one percent), but for tourist rates, it will be a lot more, so you might be able to buy yens at something like 156.1316.

Question 5 – The table below represents a list of share options currently available for trade. Answer the following questions:
1. What is a share option?
A share option is a derivative financial asset by which the buyer acquires the right (but not the obligation) to buy (call) or sell (putt) the underlying stock at a predetermined date (the maturity or settlement date) at an agreed exercise price.
The seller of the option will need to do what the buyer decides to do, and the buyer will exercise or not exercise the option on the following circumstances:
· Call – a call is bought when you expect the price of the underlying share to go up but are not certain, so you don’t want to commit the full funds of buying the share while still benefitting if your expectations are correct. By buying the call, you simply commit the price of the call, and at the exercise date, if the price has gone up, you exercise the call and sell the share at the higher market price, thus making a profit. If the share price has gone down, you let the option lapse without exercise and your maximum loss is the option price, whereas if you had bought the share, your loss could have been much larger. The seller of the call enters this trade as their expectation is that the share price will go down, and therefore if they are right, the option will not be exercised and they profit from the option price they received
· Put – the opposite happens, that is the buyer of the option expects the price to go down and will profit by buying the share at a lower price in the market and sell it at a higher price by exercising the option, whereas the seller of the option (who will be required to buy the underlying share, if the buyer of the option so desires) expects the share price will go up, and so the option will not be exercised.

2. What companies do you think the first two options on the list are?
These will be Apple and Tesla
3. What is the meaning of last?
The last is the most recent share price at which the underlying share traded when this table was created, which is normally at the end of the trading day.
4. What are the meanings of “Put” and “Call”?
As mentioned in part 1 above, a call is an option that gives the buyer the right to buy while a put is an option that gives the buyer the right to sell the underlying asset.

Most Active Options

Symbol

Last

Change

%Chg

IV Rank

Options Vol

Put/Call Vol

Time

AAPL

168.88

+0.24

+0.14%

55.82%

923,775

0.76

02/14/22

TSLA

875.76

+15.76

+1.83%

47.43%

693,822

0.80

02/14/22

AMD

114.27

+1.09

+0.96%

75.41%

387,043

0.54

02/14/22

FB

217.70

-1.85

-0.84%

86.16%

244,560

0.51

02/14/22

CVX

136.67

-2.14

-1.54%

60.21%

241,044

0.07

02/14/22

BAC

47.42

-0.50

-1.04%

70.13%

231,262

0.54

02/14/22

AMC

17.75

-1.06

-5.64%

11.60%

205,138

0.42

02/14/22

NVDA

242.67

+3.18

+1.33%

80.26%

201,068

0.55

02/14/22

This was not asked, but a brief explanation of the meaning of each of these columns, in the order they are shown:
· Share ticker of the underlying share
· Last share price of the underlying share when the table was created
· Change in share price versus previous day
· Same in percentage
· A measure of current volatility of the underlying share versus the largest and smallest volatility value in the last year. A value of 100% means the current volatility is the highest within the last year
· Number of share options traded during the day
· Mix of puts and calls traded. For Apple for example, the figure means for every 100 calls traded, 76 puts were also traded
· The date when the table refers to. This is data from the USA, so don’t forget the date standard is mm/dd/yy
Question 6 – On the following link (Soybean Futures Contract Specs – CME Group) you will be able to access currently traded soybean future contracts. Access the information on the site, and answer the following questions:
1. What is the meaning of “soybean futures”?
Any future is an agreement to buy or sell the underlying asset, at an agreed price and at an agreed date. That is also the case here, where the future is an agreement to buy (one party) and sell (another party) the amount of soybeans set out in the future contract. If you look at the specs section of the link above, you will find the contract if for 5,000 bushels or approximately 136 metric tons and that is the amount of soybeans expected to be traded at maturity.
2. What is the price of a soybean future?
At the time I prepared these solutions, the price was 1,603.4 cents per bushel, but this price is constantly being updated as trading happens.
3. Who would be interested in buying and selling soybean futures?
As with any other future, there are two types of investors buying them:
· Hedgers, i.e. someone with a “position” (for example a company that uses soybeans to put in cans, mis with other vegetables, prepare ready-made meals, etc, who is going to need the beans in the future) and who wants to reduce their risk. In this case, they will fix today the price at which they will buy the soybeans in the future.
· Speculators, who don’t have any position but expect certain price movements and wants to take advantage of those movements. Someone who expects prices to go up, buys futures, so that they can buy the soybeans at the agreed future price and sell in the market at the time at a higher price, thus making a profit. Someone who expects the price to go down will instead sell the future and profit from buying in the market at a lower price and sell by executing the contract
Given that the majority of trade in commodity futures is now done by speculators who don’t need the underlying commodity, most of the contracts are not exercised at maturity but rather settled beforehand with no exchange of the underlying asset, but just by exchange of the monetary profit/loss of the contract.