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Week 8 Discussion Forum
Please share what some of the systems that work directly with the muscular systems are and what shared purpose they may have in the human body. 

Also, discuss what Rigor Mortis is, and what happens to muscles during rigor mortis? Why it is important to break rigor when embalming?

Students: Please answer the question first (250+ words) and then respond to two of your fellow classmates with a substantive response (150+ words)

EXTRA CREDIT OPPORTUNITY!
 Create a 4-page (minimum, it may be longer if you wish) covering chapters 1 -4 in your textbook, as well as anything that was covered in the PowerPoints (one full-page minimum per chapter). You can include pictures and diagrams however; it cannot be only pictures and diagrams. Please use this as not only an opportunity for extra credit but also a way to create a thorough study guide for your final. This will be weighted the same as your quiz grades, which are 10% of your overall grade. What you put into this assignment will be what you get out of it.

Anatomy 1
Planes and Cavities
Mrs. Shields

Anatomical Position

The erect position of the body with the face directed forward, the arms at the side, and the palms of the hands facing forward, used as a reference in describing the relation of body parts to one another

The concept is important as a reference point upon which a common understanding of other concepts and terminology is based.

Anatomical Planes
Imaginary lines used to transect the human body, in order to describe the location of structures or the direction of movements.

Act as reference for anatomical direction

Three principal planes:

Sagittal/Median

Frontal/Coronal

Transverse/Horizontal

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Anatomical
planes

Sagittal Planes

Cuts body from front to back, leaving left and right parts

Mid-sagittal/Median Plane: cuts body into two equal halves

Frontal/Coronal Plane

Cuts body from side to side, at right angles to median plane, leaving front and back parts

Transverse, or Horizontal Plane

Cuts body horizontally, resulting in upper and lower parts

Bilateral Symmetry: refers to the symmetry of paired organs, or to an organism whose right and left halves are similar images of each other
Ex: kidneys, lungs, eyes or arms, hands, legs, feet

Directional Terms of Position/Comparison
Anterior/Ventral: toward front of body
Medial: toward midline or median plane of body
Superior/Cranial/Cephalic: toward the head or upper part of the body
Posterior/Dorsal: toward back of body
Lateral: away from midline or toward sides of body
Inferior/Caudal: toward the lower part of the body

Proximal

Toward or closer to the point of attachment

Internal/Deep/Central

Located toward the center of body(part)

Away from the surface

Distal

Away from the point of attachment

External/Superficial/Peripheral

Located toward the edges of the body (part)

Toward the surface

Parietal

Refers to the walls of a cavity

Supine

Lying horizontally with the face and torso facing up

Visceral

Refers to the organs within a cavity

Prone

Lying horizontally with the face and torso facing downward

Gross Anatomy

General Body Regions
Head
cranium and face
Cervical Region
neck area
Trunk or Torso
includes the thorax, abdomen, and pelvis

Upper Extremities

Includes the arms and pectoral girdle

Ex: shoulder blades and collar bones

Lower Extremities

Includes the legs and pelvic girdle

Ex: hip bones

Body Cavities

Space in an organism that houses organs

Lined and usually contain a lubricating fluid

Body Cavities
Dorsal Cavity
Cranial Cavity: within the skull
houses brain
Spinal cavity: within the vertebral column
contains spinal cord
Also contains the meninges

The three membranes (the dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater) that line the skull and vertebral canal and enclose the brain and spinal cord

Ventral Cavity: large cavity contained within the trunk of the body
Consists of:
Thoracic Cavity: upper part of the torso or trunk, within the chest area
This in turn contains:
Pleural Cavities: space around the lungs
Mediastinal Cavity: space in the center of the thorax from the base of the neck to the diaphragm.
This then includes:
Pericardial Cavity: space around the heart
Abdominopelvic Cavity: part of the ventral cavity located below the diaphragm

Abdominopelvic Cavity: the part of the ventral cavity below the diaphragm
Abdominal Cavity: upper part of the abdominopelvic cavity
Below the diaphragm to approximately the top of the hip bones
Pelvic Cavity: lower part of the abdominopelvic cavity
Contained within the pelvis

Peritoneal Cavity: two layered serous membrane
Covers over and around many of the organs in the abdominopelvic cavity
Lines inside walls of the cavity
Holds organs in place and transmits nerves and blood vessels
Secrets serous fluid
The term cavity refers to the space between the membranes

Additional Cavities
Buccal (Oral) Cavity: within the mouth
Nasal Cavity: with the nose
Orbital Cavity: eye sockets

Topographical Human Anatomy

Linear Guides
Imaginary line drawn on the surface of the body which represents the approximate location of a deeper, underlying structure
Useful to the embalmer in locating vessels and organs
For example, an imaginary line drawn from the manubrium of the sternum to the ear lobe will give a guide for locating the common carotid artery and jugular vein

Anatomical Guides

Any surface, prominence, or structure which is used to locate an adjacent structure or prominence

For example, along the medial border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle lies the common carotid artery

Anatomical Limits

Refers to the point of origin and point of termination of a structure

For example, the common carotid artery originates behind the sternoclavicular articulation and terminates at the superior border of the thyroid cartilage

Regional anatomy
See table A, page 9 of your anatomy textbook for further reading

Regions of the Abdomen
Four Region Plan
Divides the area into four quadrants by drawing a vertical (mid-sagittal) and horizontal line which intersects the navel area.
The resulting quadrants are then referred to as the upper right, upper left, lower right and lower left quadrants.

Regions of the Abdomen
Nine Region Plan
Divides the abdomen into nine separate regions to help in locating the abdominal structures.
Hypochondriac Region: the superior, lateral regions
Epigastric Region: the superior, middle region
Umbilical Region: the middle region, around the navel
Lumbar Region: the regions immediately lateral to the umbilical region
Iliac/Inguinal Region: the inferior, lateral regions
Hypogastric Region: the inferior, middle region

EXAM 2

Selected Topographical Areas

Anterior cervical triangle
The anterior triangle is situated at the front of the neck. It is bounded:
Superiorly: inferior border of the mandible (jawbone)
Laterally: anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid
Medially: sagittal line down the midline of the neck

Major Contents
There are several important vascular structures within the anterior triangle. The common carotid artery bifurcates within the triangle into the external and internal carotid branches. The internal jugular vein can also be found within this area – it is responsible for venous drainage of the head and neck.
Numerous cranial nerves are in the anterior triangle. Some pass straight through, and others give rise to branches which innervate some of the other structures within the triangle. The cranial nerves in the anterior triangle are the facial [VII], glossopharyngeal [IX], vagus [X], accessory [XI], and hypoglossal [XII] nerves.

Axilla
Armpit area that lies underneath the glenohumeral joint, at the junction of the upper limb and the thorax
The overall shape of the axilla looks slightly like a pyramid. It consists of four sides, an open apex and base
Apex: also known as the axillary inlet, is formed by lateral border of the first rib, superior border of scapula, and the posterior border of the clavicle.
Lateral wall: formed by intertubercular groove of the humerus.

Medial Wall: consists of the serratus anterior and the thoracic wall (ribs and intercostal muscles).

Anterior wall: contains the pectoralis major and the underlying pectoralis minor and the subclavius muscles.

Posterior wall: formed by the subscapularis, teres major and latissimus dorsi.

The contents of the axilla region include muscles, nerves, vasculature and lymphatics:
Axillary Artery (and branches): the main artery supplying the upper limb.
Axillary Vein (and tributaries): the main vein draining the upper limb, its two largest tributaries are the cephalic and basilic veins
Brachial Plexus (and branches): a collection of spinal nerves that form the peripheral nerves of the upper limb

Regional Anatomy

See table A, page 9 of your anatomy textbook for further reading

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Anatomy 1
Integumentary System
Mrs. Shields
Lecture 3

Integumentary: Relating to the outer surface of a structure
Example, the skin and its components
Several functions
Acts as protective covering for the body
Keeps foreign objects out
Keeps what belongs inside, inside
Integumentary System

Integumentary System

Helps regulate body temperature; sweat

Helps eliminate waste; sweat

Serves as a bed for sensory nerve receptors

Allows for feeling our environment

Allows sensation; hot/cold

Layers
Made up of two primary layers
Epidermis
Dermis

Integumentary system
Epidermis: Outer primary layer
Composed primarily of epithelial tissue atop a layer of connective tissue
Contains melanin cells
Brownish-black pigment cells
Absence of melanin is called albinism

Integumentary
System
Dermis: Internal primary layer
Comprised of connective tissue
Contains blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerves of the skin

Integumentary system
Other important structures include:
Secretory structures that can manufacture secretions called glands
Sebaceous glands: Secrete sebum
AKA: oil glands
Keeps hair and skin soft and pliable
Usually attached to a hair follicle

Integumentary system
Sudoriferous glands:
AKA Sweat glands
Secrete sudor
Sudor: AKA sweat

Two types
Eccrine: Regulates body temperature
Apocrine: Releases during stress (axilla, groin)

Integumentary system
Hair
Aids in temperature control
Piloerection: erection or bristling of hairs due to the involuntary contraction of small muscles at the base of hair follicles that occurs as a reflexive response of the sympathetic nervous system especially to cold, shock, or fright
Extra protection from UV rays
Provide protection
Eyelashes, nose hair, ear hair

Integumentary system
Nails: Protects distal ends of the fingers and toes
Aids in enhancing sensitivity of fingertips by acting as a counter-force
Abnormalities can indicate disease

Integumentary System
Functions of skin
Protective covering of body
Regulate and maintain temperature
Eliminate wastes
Allows for sensory touch and feel

Integumentary System
Skin anatomy
Superficial layer = epidermis
Deeper layer = dermis

Integumentary System

Skin glands
Sweat glands (sudoriferous)
Sebaceous glands
Ceruminous glands (ear)

Integumentary
System

Ceruminous Glands:

Type of Apocrine Gland

Location: outer ear

Secretion: earwax

Ear Wax: AKA – cerumen

Thick Skin

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Anatomy
Introduction to Anatomy
Mrs. Shields

A Study of Form
Anatomy: the branch of science concerned with the bodily structure of humans, animals, and other living organisms, especially as revealed by dissection and the separation of parts.

Commonly taught alongside Physiology, the study of function.

One of the basic essential sciences of medicine

Anatomy is a broad science

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Subdivisions of Anatomy

Gross Anatomy: study of the body with unaided eye

Microscopic Anatomy: study of the body with a microscope

Histology: study of body tissues with a microscope

Cytology: study of individual cells

Systemic Anatomy: focus on individual organs and systems

Regional Anatomy: focus on specific body regions

Embryology: focus on body prior to birth

Pathology: focus on body changes due to disease

Topographical Anatomy: focus on surface shape and form, use of landmarks to find underlying structures.

Body Organization

Begins at the chemical level.
Protoplasm: a highly specialized product that is a combination of various chemical elements organized into units known as cells.

Cells
Smallest functional units of organization in the body

Possess the “qualities of life”

Irritability (response to stimulus)

Metabolism (ability to take in food/water and produce waste)

Growth and maturity

Reproduction

Structure of cells

Nucleus: contains cell’s genetic information. Controls cellular activities, e.g., reproduction, protein synthesis

Cytoplasm: protoplasm of cell between nucleus and cell membrane

Contains organelles
Ribosomes: synthesize protein
Mitochondria: produce energy
Lysosomes: contain digestive enzymes
Endoplasmic reticulum: canals which transport material throughout cell
Centrioles: important in cell division/reproduction

Plasma Membrane

AKA: Cell membrane

Outer boundary of the cell

Keeps cell intact

Regulates passage in and out of the cell

Tissue

Group of similar cells arranged to perform a certain function

E.g., muscle cells create muscle tissue

Four main categories

Epithelial tissue: covers outside of body/lines inner surfaces of body

Membranes are epithelial

Connective tissue: protects, supports, and binds body parts together

Areolar (loose) connective tissue: scattered, irregular fibers embedded in a soft gel-like base. Considered “glue” as it binds many other tissues

Adipose (fatty) tissue: specialized to store fat

Fibrous connective tissue: strong, fibrous bundles. Includes tendons, ligaments, fascia

Bone: hardened, calcified connective tissue

Cartilage: softer, more flexible connective tissue

Hemopoietic (blood forming) tissue: tissue found in red bone marrow, the spleen, tonsils, and lymph nodes. Blood is considered liquid connective tissue

Muscular tissue: responsible for movement

Nervous tissue: receiving stimuli, conducting impulses, controlling various bodily function

Organs

Group of tissues arranged for performance of a specific function

May include two or more types of tissues to allow for more specialized functioning

Systems (10)

Group of organs arranged for performance of a particular function

Skeletal system: bones, cartilage, ligaments which provide support and protection

Circulatory system: heart, blood, blood vessels, lymphatic system which transport gases, nutrients, and waste products throughout the body

Muscular system: muscles concerned with movement of the body and its parts

Endocrine system: glands that give off secretions which serves as chemical regulators of bodily function

Nervous system: Brain, spinal cord, and nerves which have overall control of bodily functions.

Digestive system: various organs concerned with metabolism (taking, breaking, wasting)

Urinary system: kidneys and related organs serving to filter waste from the blood and maintain fluid and chemical balance in the body

Respiratory system: lungs and related organs concerned with taking in O2 and eliminating other respiratory gases

Reproductive system: organs involved in reproduction of the species and development of sexual characteristics
Integumentary system: skin and its components involved in covering and protecting the body, temperature regulations, and sensory functions

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Anatomy
Skeletal System
Mrs. Shields

Appendicular skeleton
Total of 126 bones
Consists of the upper and lower extremities, the pectoral girdle and the pelvic girdle
Functionally it is involved in locomotion (lower limbs) of the axial skeleton and manipulation of objects in the environment (upper limbs)
Unlike the axial skeleton, the appendicular skeleton is unfused, allowing for a much greater range of motion

Upper extremities and pectoral girdle
Clavicle (2)
Collar bone
Medial end articulates with manubrium
Lateral end joins with superior part of scapula to help form the shoulder

Scapulae (2)
Shoulder blades
Acromion: superior, lateral projection that articulates with the clavicle
Coracoid process: “Crow’s Beak” acts as an anchor point for several muscles
Glenoid cavity/fossa: depression into which the head of the humerus fits, forming the shoulder joint

Humerus (2)
Long bone in the upper arm which runs from the shoulder to the elbow
Head: Ball-like superior end
Condyles: curved protuberance at the end of a bone forming part of an articulation
Located on inferior end
Articulate with radius and ulna to form the elbow joint

Epicondyles:  rounded eminence on a bone that lies upon a condyle and act as attachment points for ligaments
medial epicondyle of the humerus
protects the ulnar nerve
lateral epicondyle of the humerus
Smaller of the two

Ulna (2)
Medial of the two forearm bones
Superior end is called the olecranon process; the elbow
Radius (2)
Lateral of the two forearm bones
Shorter and smaller than the ulna

Carpals (16)
Wrist bones
Consist of 8 per hand
Metacarpals (10)
Bones of the hand just beyond the carpals
Consist of 5 per hand

Phalanges (28)
Bones of the fingers
Consist of 14 per hand
Each finger consists of 3 phalanges
Each thumb consists of 2 phalanges
Not individually named, rather, referred to as proximal, medial, and distal
Fingers are referred to by number starting with the index finger

Lower Extremities

Lower extremities and pelvic girdle
Os coxae (2)
Hip bones; make up the pelvic girdle
Also known as innominate bone, pelvic bone or coxal bone

Composed of 3 parts
Ilium: broad superior portion
Iliac crest: upper rim of the ilium
Ischium: inferior portion of the os coxae
forms the lower and back part
Pubis: inferior, anterior segment of the os coxae
Also called pubic bone
Acetabulum: cup-like area into which the head of the femur fits to form the hip joint

Pubic symphysis: cartilaginous joint that sits between and joins left and right superior rami of the pubic bones
Located in front of and below the urinary bladder
Can be moved roughly 2 mm and with 1 degree rotation; increases for women at the time of childbirth

Femur (2)
Large bone of the upper leg
Strongest bone in the body
Longest bone in the body

Femoral head: superior end of the femur
Fits into the acetabulum to form the hip joint
Supported by the femoral neck
Most common area for hip fractures
Condyles: articulate with lower leg bones to form knee joint
Epicondyles: point of attachment for ligaments in the knee joint
Medial and lateral

Patella (2)
Commonly referred to as kneecap
Considered a sesamoid bone due to its formation within the tendon of the femoral muscles
Roughly triangular in shape, with the apex of the patella facing downwards

Tibia (2)
Shin bone
Medial bone of the lower leg
Tibial crest is a pronounced ridge on the anterior margin “Furniture locator”
Medial malleolus
Projection on the distal end of the tibia
While not an actual ankle bone, many consider this the “inside ankle bone”

Fibula (2)
Lateral bone of the lower leg
Smaller than tibia
Lateral malleolus
Distal end of the fibula
Like the medial malleolus, it is known as the “outer ankle bone” but isn’t actually a bone in itself

Tarsals (14)
Actual ankle bones
7 per foot
Include calcaneous (heel bone)
Metatarsals (10)
Bones of the foot itself
5 per foot

Phalanges (28)
Bones of the toes
Equal to the phalanges of the hands (3 per toe, 2 per big toe)

Arthrology
Arthro = joints or articulations, -ology = study of
Articulation: point of union between two bones, or cartilage and a bone
All bones, except the hyoid bone, articulate with other bones
Three types of articulations

Synarthroses
Immovable articulations
At these joints, movement is not intended
Example?

Cranial sutures: point at which bones of the cranium come together
Coronal suture: between the frontal and parietal bones
Lambdoid suture: between the parietal and occipital bones and continuous with the occipitomastoid suture

Occipitomastoid suture: between the occipital and temporal bones and continuous with the lambdoid suture
Squamosal suture: between the parietal and the temporal bone
Frontal suture / Metopic suture: between the two frontal bones, prior to the fusion of the two into a single bone
Sagittal suture: along the midline, between parietal bones

Fontanel
Space between the bones of the skull in an infant or fetus, where ossification is not complete and the sutures not fully formed
Allow for rapid stretching and deformation of the neurocranium as the brain expands faster than the surrounding bone can grow

Posterior fontanel is triangle-shaped. It lies at the junction between the sagittal suture and lambdoid suture
Anterior fontanel is a diamond-shaped membrane-filled space located between the two frontal and two parietal bones of the developing fetal skull
Two smaller fontanelles are located on each side of the head
Sphenoidal or anterolateral fontanelle (between the sphenoid, parietal, temporal, and frontal bones)
Mastoid or posterolateral fontanelle (between the temporal, occipital, and parietal bones)

During birth, fontanelles enable the bony plates of the skull to flex, allowing the child’s head to pass through the birth canal
Posterior fontanelle generally closes 2 to 3 months after birth
Sphenoidal fontanelle is the next to close around 6 months after birth
Mastoid fontanelle closes next from 6 to 18 months after birth
Anterior fontanelle is generally the last to close between 18–24 months
Another example of a synarthroses joint
Sternocostal joint: point at which the ribs attach to the sternum

Amphiarthroses
Slightly movable articulations
Allow a small amount of movement at the joint
Usually a small piece of cartilage which separates the two bones
Examples ?

Pubic symphysis
Sacroiliac articulation: point where sacrum meets the two os coxae
Intervertebral joints: area between the bodies of the vertebrae
Movement here is necessary for twisting and bending

Diarthroses
Freely moveable articulations
Allow significant movement; sometimes in only one direction, sometimes in several
As opposed to other types of joints, diarthroses contain a capsule surrounding the joint

Joint cavity: lined with smooth, connective tissue membrane called synovial membrane
Secretes synovial fluid to lubricate the joint, reducing friction
Layers of articular cartilage cover the ends of bones forming the joint

Examples
Shoulder: ball and socket joint that allows the arm to rotate in a circular fashion or to hinge out and up away from the body
Elbow: hinge joint which allows the forearm and hand to be moved towards and away from the body
Wrist: condyloid joint (also called condylar, ellipsoidal, or bicondylar) which permits movement in two planes, allowing flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, and circumduction

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Anatomy
Skeletal System

Skeletal System
Skeletal pertains to the bones of the body
Consists mainly of two tissues
Bone
Contains functional cells called osteocytes
Ossification is the process of bone formation
Bone is a dynamic organ; continually maintains and repairs throughout life

Cartilage
In embryos the skeletal system is mainly cartilage
Smooth, elastic connective tissue
Protects the ends of long bones
Found in several areas of the body: nose, ears, trachea, articulating area of bones

Structure of bone
Outer layer
Very dense
Referred to as compact bone
Contains
Intricate structural arrangements of rings of tissue containing bone cells
Haversian systems or osteons
Hardened intracellular substances (calcium, inorganic salts)

Structure of bone
Inner layer
Contains marrow
A highly vascularized, gelatinous tissue that contains hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells. These stems cells generate progenitor cells that differentiate into a variety of cell types, including osteocytes (bone cells), adipocytes (fat cells), myocytes (muscle cells), erythrocytes (red blood cells), and white blood cells

Structure of bone

Inner layer consists of cancellous bone
Porous or spongy tissue
Contains spaces occupied by red bone marrow
generate red blood cells (coloring this marrow red), white blood cells, and platelets

Structure of bone
Other structures
Periosteum: tough membrane that covers bone
Articular cartilage: covers and cushions bone ends where they form a joint

Parts of a Bone
Diaphysis: the shaft of a long bone
Epiphyses: ends of a bone
Medullary canal: contains yellow bone marrow
predominately located in the axial skeleton, specifically in the diaphysis of long bones. In contrast to red marrow, adipocytes are the primary cell type in yellow marrow
 function as a fuel tank for the storage of lipids and triglycerides

Functions of bone

Support
Provides support and rigidity to soft tissue, maintaining normal erect posture
Protection
Help protect the more delicate vital organs
Movement
Serve as points of attachment for muscles which pull on bone, resulting in movement

Functions of bone
Storage
Stores minerals such as calcium
Hematopoiesis
Production of blood cells takes place in bone marrow

Bony landmarks

Antrum or sinus: Air cavity within a bone
Canal or meatus: tunnel-like passage or opening in a bone

Bony landmarks

Condyle: smooth, curved articular surface on a bone
Epicondyle: prominence just above a condyle

Bony Landmarks
Crest: prominent ridge on a bone
Fissure: narrow slit or groove between bones for passage of blood vessels or nerves

Bony Landmarks

Fontanel: temporarily unossified area between the cranial bones of an infant
Foramen: hole in a bone

Bony Landmarks

Fossa: depression in a bone
Head: ball-like articular projection on a bone

Bony Landmarks

Process: any prominent projection or outgrowth of bone
Septum: wall or partition which divides a body cavity
Tubercle or Tuberosity: bump or elevation on a bone

Divisions of the skeleton
206 classified bones
Does not include sesamoid bones
Bone embedded in a tendon
Does not include sutural bones
Bone chips sometimes found embedded between cranial bones (suture)

Divisions of the skeleton
Divided into two main subdivisions
Axial: All bones of the skull, thorax, and spine
80 total
Appendicular: bones of the upper extremities, pectoral girdle, lower extremities, and pelvic girdle
126 total

80 bones
Skull: 22 bones plus 6 ear ossicles
Small bones
May be subdivided into three categories
Cranium
Face
Ears

Axial skeleton

Cranium (8)
Frontal bone: forms the forehead area, the front, top of the cranium, and the upper part of the eye sockets

Cranium

Frontal Bone
Important landmarks of the frontal bone
Supraorbital margins: upper rim of the eye sockets
Superciliary arches: elevations at and above the medial ends of the eyebrows
Glabella: prominence just above the nasal bones, between the medial ends of the eyebrows
Frontal eminences: Gently rounded prominences at the upper border of the forehead
Frontal sinuses are also included in the frontal bone

Parietal bones (2)
Form the majority of the upper sides and top of the cranium

Parietal Bones

Temporal Bones

Temporal bones (2)
Form lower sides of the cranium
Area surrounding the ears
Squama
Upper flat portion, adjacent to the parietal bone

Temporal Bones
Petrous portion
Inferior portion includes the hearing canal and houses the ear ossicles (6)

Temporal Bone
Malleus (hammer): (2) articulates with the incus and is attached to the tympanic membrane (eardrum), from which vibrational sound pressure motion is passed
Incus (anvil): (2) middle ossicle that connects the malleus and stapes
Stapes (stirrup): (2)  articulates with the incus and is attached to the membrane of the fenestra ovalis, or opening between the middle ear and the vestibule of the inner ear
It is the smallest bone in the body

Temporal Bone

Zygomatic process
Projection on the temporal bone which extends forward, anterior to the hearing canal, to unite with the cheek bone
Mastoid process
Prominent projection on the inferior part of the temporal bone, just behind the ear
External auditory meatus
Tunnel in the temporal bone which extends medially from the external ear to the middle ear

Temporal Bone

Mandibular fossa
Depression on the temporal bone, anterior to the external auditory meatus, which articulates with the condyles of the lower jaw
Carotid canal
Passageway in the temporal bone through which the internal carotid artery passes in taking blood to the brain

Occipital Bone

Occipital bone (1)
Makes up lower back part of the cranium
Foramen magnum
Large opening in inferior portion through which the spinal cord passes to connect to the brain

Occipital Bone

Occipital condyles
Located on either side of the foramen magnum
Points of articulation with the top vertebrae of the spinal column
External occipital protuberance
Prominent tubercle on the posterior surface of the occipital bone

Sphenoid Bone
Sphenoid bone (1)
Bat shaped bone which helps make up the floor of the cranial cavity, back of the eye sockets, and part of the temple area
Sella turcica
Depression in the center of the superior portion of the sphenoid
Holds the pituitary gland

Sphenoid Bone

Ethmoid bone (1)
Irregular shaped bone which helps make up the floor of the cranial cavity, part of the eye socket, and the upper part of the nasal cavity

Ethmoid Bone

Ethmoid Bone
Cribriform plate
Flat superior surface of the ethmoid; involved in making up the floor of the cranial cavity
Contains several small holes to allow for passage of nerves into the nasal cavity
Contains a noticeable vertical projection on its superior portion called the crista galli (rooster’s comb)
Vertical or perpendicular plate is a thin, flat plate of bone which extends down into the nasal cavity to help make up the nasal septum

Ethmoid Bone

Paranasal sinuses within the Ethmoid bone
Group of four paired air-filled spaces that surround the nasal cavity 
Maxillary sinuses are located under the eyes
Frontal sinuses are above the eyes
Ethmoidal sinuses are between the eyes
Sphenoidal sinuses are behind the eyes
Sinuses are named for the facial bones in which they are located

Transitional Features
Transitional features
Calvaria: top, domelike skullcap
Orbit: cavity or socket of the skull in which the eye and its appendages are situated

Orbit

Comprised of a portion of seven bones
Frontal bone
Lacrimal bone
Ethmoid bone
Zygomatic bone
Maxillary bone
Palatine bone
Sphenoid bone

Facial Bones

Face (14)
Nasal bones (2)
Small bones making up the bridge of the nose
Lacrimal bones (2)
Located in the anterior, medial portion of the eye sockets.
From the Latin for “tears”

Facial Bones

Vomer bone (1)
Located on the midline in the base of the nasal cavity
Helps form the nasal septum with the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone
Zygomatic bones (2)
Cheek bones
Also known as malar bones
Help form eye socket

Facial Bones
Maxillary bones (2)
Upper jaw bones, commonly referred to as maxilla
Help form eye socket and walls of the nasal cavity
Palatine process: horizontal portion of maxilla which forms the anterior portion of the roof of the mouth
Alveolar process: part of the maxilla into which the roots of the teeth are embedded
Maxillary sinuses (2): located below the cheeks, above the teeth and on the sides of the nose

Facial Bones

Palatine bones (2)
Smalls bones which help form the posterior part of the roof of the mouth
Origin of “palate”

Facial Bones

Inferior nasal conchae (2)
Described as bony ledge located on lateral wall of nasal cavity

Facial Bones

Mandible (1)
Lower jaw bone
Main horizontal and anterior portion known as the body
Mental eminence: inferior, anterior “tip of the chin”
Alveolar process: portion of mandible in which teeth are embedded

Facial Bones
Point at which the inferior line of the body turns upward is referred to as the angle
Vertical, posterior portion known as the ramus
Mandibular condyle fits into a depression in the temporal bone called the mandibular fossa to form the lower jaw joint

Hyoid Bone
Hyoid bone (1)
Horseshoe shaped bone located in the cervical region, just above the larynx
Does not directly articulate with any other bone
Serves as point of attachment for several muscles involved with movements in the tongue, mouth, and throat area

Vertebral Column
Vertebral column (26)
Bones of the spinal column are known as vertebrae
Function to provide strength, protection of the spinal cord, flexibility, and movement

Vertebral Column
Provide the main support structure of the body; the spine
Divided into 5 sections
Cervical
Thoracic
Lumbar
Sacrum
Coccyx

Vertebral Column
Cervical vertebrae
7 uppermost vertebrae
Located in the neck area
Referred to as C1-C7

Vertebral Column

C1 is the most superior vertebrae, also known as the atlas
Articulates with the occipital bone
Skull rests upon C1
C2 is the vertebrae below C1 and is known as the axis
Forms a special articulation with C1 that allows for a pivoting action
Allows the head to be turned from side to side

Vertebral Column
Thoracic vertebrae (12)
Inferior to the cervical vertebrae
Can be described as the upper back
Designated as T1-T12
Each thoracic vertebrae articulates with a pair of ribs

Vertebral Column
Lumbar vertebrae (5)
Inferior to the thoracic vertebrae
Designated L1-L5

Vertebral Column

Sacrum
Immediately inferior to L5
Results from the fusion of five separate vertebrae in a developing child
Articulates with the hip bones to form the pelvis

Vertebral Column

Coccyx
Most inferior vertebra
Often referred to as the “tail bone”
Results from the fusion of separate smaller vertebrae in a developing child

Sternum
Breastbone
Considered a single bone though originally 3 segments during development

Manubrium: superior segment
The suprasternal notch (jugular notch) is located in the middle at the upper broadest part of the manubrium
Joins with the body of the sternum, the clavicles and the cartilages of the first pair of ribs
Body: middle segment
Xiphoid process: inferior segment
Cartilaginous process (extension) of the inferior part of the sternum, which is usually ossified in the adult human

Ribs (12 pairs)
Series of slender curved bones articulated in pairs to the spine, protecting the thoracic cavity and its organs
Pairs are numbered 1-12, with pair 1 beginning just inferior to the clavicles
Posteriorly, each pair articulates with a spinal vertebrae
Divided into two categories

Ribs

True ribs: upper seven pairs. Called true ribs due to their articulation with sternum
False ribs: bottom five pairs. Called false ribs because they do not attach directly to the sternum
8-10 attach to the rib above via cartilage
11-12 have no anterior cartilage and are known as floating ribs