Student Number: W19042969
Student’s Name: Easwar karthik .Dara
Course: Integrated Building Information Modeling Project
Subject Code: KB7038
Title: Literature Review on BIM Enable project on Offsite Processes and Modern Methods of
Department of Mechanical and Construction Engineering
Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE18ST, United Kingdom
Word Count: 3246
Images : 9
The Building information management (BIM) approach involves integration of structures,
systems and people as well as processes into a collective approach to enhance efficiency,
effectiveness, productivity, performance and reduction in every stage in project lifecycle. It helps
reduce time spent, costs involved and avoid errors. It helps the contractors save time, but the cost
rises because of detecting design errors at the initial stages. The value it adds at the design stage
is very significant since designers evaluate the design option and generate the 3D and 2D
models. Using BIM, owners can have accurate and clear visualization of the project design since
the 3D models and the 2D drawings are easy and simple to understand thereby simplifying
communication. The modern methods of construction (MMC) aim at reducing the cost, time and
maintain project sustainability. Modern methods of construction promote improved processes
and products. These methods include precast flat panel system, steel structure with multi-layered
composite enclosure, 3D volumetric construction (modular construction), flat slab construction,
precast concrete foundations and twin wall technology.Modern methods of construction use less
time while designing, planning and approval by the authority since no testing when a new project
begins. There are enhanced safety and health concerns for constructors.
BIM system is the digital illustration of a construction as a source of information concerning a
project and an object with three dimensions which facilitates the exchange of information with
software related applications. BIM is founded in the integration of contractors, employers,
engineers, architects in addition to consultants and a three dimensional object for knowledge and
information providence. BIM offers information for a construction structure direct from the
initial stage of planning and design up to the completion phase as well as during the termination
of the deal. Moreover, apart from increasing the integration and cooperation of the involved
systems BIM offers knowledge and information database for the construction (Miettinen and
Paavola, 2014).This system provides new ideas and information to go on with communication
process perfectly during construction thus all stakeholders acquire the necessary information
needed at every stage of the construction process by availing the needed tools for identifying the
firm or the project policies,standards and responsibilities from the initial stage of the project.
The growth in the demand for sustainable construction in this century is majorly to solve the
issues of environment,non-livable, unsafe, uneasy to operate and unsecure non-sustainable
construction creates. The users of sustainable construction are essentially the developers, users
and owners of construction. According to Womack and Jones(2015), consumers’ requirements
should be fulfilled. Users of sustainable construction would prefer their issues solved effectively,
with less expenses,less time and effort. Clients of sustainable construction need their issues
solved where and when they need them solved. They need the number of decisions regarding
their problems reduced. Hence, the importance of sustainable construction lies in fulfilling the
expectations of these clients. Delivering of this value needs effective integration and
consciousness in delivering the process since construction needs many systems which are
integrated. If one system has an issue the rest will be affected in delivering their functions. These
systems include the structure, architectural, engineering, electrical and plumbing. These help
deliver the needed performance (Mahbub et al, 2010)
Figure 1: Building information modelling
Source:Smith and Edgar, 2008
BIM has not only shown some positive impact in the construction sector but also in architectural
and engineering as among the most high ranked communication and information technologies
used in this industry(Moreno, Olbina, and Issa, 2019). Architectural, engineer and construction
has adopted the 3D visualization, detection of clash, analysis of feasibility, review of
construction, facility management,scheduling and LEED analysis (Gheisari and Irizarry, 2016).
In the normal case BIM can be perceived as a software but it is also a process (Azhar, Khalfan
and Maqsood, 2012). Apart from being a three dimension (3D)objectit also comprises of
important workflow changes, management of project and delivery. Moreover, it integrates the
systems during the project delivery. This approach integrates structures, systems and people and
processes into a common approach to optimize effectiveness, efficiency, performance,
productivity and reduction in each and every stage in project lifecycle (Won et al, 2013). There
is an extra schedule of work that is time information giving the four dimensions object (4D) and
in addition to cost information a fifth dimensional model occurs (5D). The sixth dimension(6D)
facilitates management which is the operation and the other model analyses the impact on
environment (sustainability). The 8th dimension concerns security of the site of the project
Figure 2: Types of data integrated in a BIM model
Benefits of adopting BIM in projects
BIM application in projects is influenced by readiness of field engineer, project manager, and
architect in the use of BIM, owner’s call to adopt BIM, and convolution of project. The size of
the Project and type of the project (Cao et al, 2015), as well as the delivery method of the project
and establishment of collaborative work atmospheres have substantial impact on the BIM
execution in projects. This phenomenon has great impact on all the stakeholders of a project.
Generally it helps reduce time spent, costs involved and prevent errors. Some of the stakeholders
who have benefitted from use of BIM include:
Coordination of the construction systems by contractors is enabled by BIM whereby they can
easily notice clashes and take the corrective measures to these issues. It helps them save time, but
the cost rises because of detecting design errors at the initial stages. Contractors also benefit from
building information management since they calculate takeoffs of quantity and cost estimation
for bidding and organizing project schedules using this system as well as managing field work
(Ahn, Kwak and Suk, 2016). Scheduling and planning by subcontractors is also enhanced by
BIM. It is also used in marketing and visualization of the project. This is a great source of useful
building models and information requests on building site for solving any mistake made as soon
as possible and is also useful when dealing with complex projects.
A significant support is given by architecture, electrical and construction industry on the use of
BIM. The value it adds at the design stage is very significant since designers evaluate the design
option and generate the 3 and 2 d models. This promotes transfer of information swiftly among
the design disciplines and also enhances system integration (Eastman et al.,2011). Architects are
able to minimize omissions and errors, reduce repetitive work and shorten design time.With the
integration of BIM, designers can program the improvement of building documents, like
construction details and drawing of shop that are simply produced for numerous construction
systems from the building model. The adoption of automation in the construction processes
permits engineers and architects spend more time in designing since the documents are ready and
precise and this promotes accuracy.
Applying BIM offers a competitive advantage to architectural, engineering and construction
firms by facilitating them to deliver new services to the owners and warranting owners’ full
return on the investment. Those projects that are BIM bases give quality products, with less cost
and in an effective way something which the public owners have perceived (Porwal and Hewage,
2013). By use of BIM owners can have accurate and clear visualization of the project design
since the 3D models and the 2D drawings are easy and simple to understand thus communication
Modern methods of construction and their applications
A diverse range of modern methods of construction (MMC) products and methods have emerged
that have wholly altered the behavior of construction sector from the way it was in the past. This
change is remarkable and it aims at developing this sector further. These methods of construction
aim at reducing the cost, time and maintain project sustainability. When building, there are
various components which are needed and in the right proportions. This is due to the cost
involved. The construction method technique to building helps save time, to the constructors as
well as the owners of the buildings who pay money. Saving time saves money (Boyd, Khalfan
and Maqsood, 2013). Offsite construction methods are structure parts or prefabrication
components, constructed at one point, transported and assembled on site. The kind of homes
which are modular takes much time to be constructed compared to those built on site (Chen,
Okudan, and Riley, 2010).
According to Chen (2010) modern methods of construction have promoted productivity and
enhanced quality, durability, conservation of materials, health and safety and promote
architectural appearance, less site waste and reduced water and energy consumption. Modern
methods of construction promote improved processes and products. They are geared at
improving efficiency of businesses, satisfaction of customer, sustainability hence they have a
broader focus. Various construction methods are used to solve the inefficiencies that existed due
to traditional methods.
Precast flat panel system
This construction method entails making of walls and floors off site. Facilities and Factory
outlets are required which are separate. Design specifications and requirements are considered in
constructing the panel units and then taken to the site. Repetitive constructions are suited by this
method (Unlu, 2010.).
Figure 3: precast flat panel
Source: Wild, 2019.
This method also supports mass production, it is speedy and consistent. Panels include
components like windows, doors in addition to floors and walls. Features such as fitted
insulations and wall finishes are also included (Amin Einea et al, 1991). This method is
advantageous in that it reduces on-site waste and maintenance but at the same time hard to
handle and transport. Completion of the project time is shortened.
Steel Structure with Multi-layered Composite Enclosure
This is an industrialized system of construction which makes use of metal structure, composed of
structural elements which are very standard in the laminated steel and multiple layer enclosed
walls. Onsite accuracy engineering building of steel erection syndicates with a method
manufactured offsite in plants, frequently by use of reused materials via recycling procedures
with petite construction times. Once the attachments are sealed the acoustic insulation and
thermal conductivity gives very efficient results in energy conservation (Forgues, Tahrani, and
Figure 4: Steel Structure with Multi-layered Composite Enclosure
Source: Wild, 2019
Modular construction (3D volumetric construction)
As the name suggests, the 3D volumetric construction entails the construction of 3D parts
inform of building block in off site. When the time of installation comes, they are taken to the
site and assembling of the module is done step by step. Each module constructed is in 3D units
thus the name 3D volumetric construction (Jung et al, 2018). It is also known as modular
Figure 5: Modular construction.
Source: Swiszczowski, 2020
The conveyance of the modules is done in several procedures or methods. This can include the
conveyance of the elementary structure or a finished unit with all the external and internal
finishes, with services installed in it, with only assembling part remaining (Pheng and Hui,
2004). The construction of the factory brings diverse unit of similar product upholding their
quality throughout. This method also suits repetitive construction and this enables quick
assembly of products.
Flat slab construction
These are structural components which serve various purposes. In the construction sector, it
offers a flat form of quick construction and minimum depth. The column grids of the system are
also flexible enough (Erberik and Elnashai, 2004).
Figure 6: Flat slab construction
Source: Anand Paul, 2014
When the slab soffit partitions need to be sealed because of fire or acoustic reasons, the flat slabs
are considered. These slabs are very economical and faster method of construction compared to
other methods. The slabs constructed can be finished with a descent surface soffit finish and this
promotes utilization of the visible soffits. According toNeasden Primary School(2019), this
mode of construction acts as a means of rising energy efficiency since exploitation of thermal
mass for construction is permitted in the designing of heating, ventilation and cooling
Precast Concrete Foundations
For the fast construction of establishment, the precast concrete approach can be engaged. This
system is more appropriate for a custom-made design. In this case the foundation construction is
done separately on the offsite (factory) then later assembled after being brought to the site. The
constructed product should bear the required quality as stated by the designer for strong
foundation to be achieved (Trifunac et al, 1999).
Figure 7: Precast foundation block
Source: Kumar et al, 2017
The assembled foundation is majorly backed up by concrete piles. During the assembling phase,
the two systems ate interconnected this increasing the productivity of the foundation system, its
quality and also decrease quantity of soil excavation (Hanna and Zeliniski, 2003.). This system
of construction best suits hostile and extreme climate condition.it is also good to depend on this
system when the ground under use is highly contaminated.
Twin wall technology
This method of construction acts as a hybrid solution for the construction of wall units that
syndicates the erection speed qualities and the structural integrity of precast concrete of in situ
concrete (Gohnert, 2000). This system of wall erection promises waterproof reliability and
structural integrity of the structure being built.
Figure 8: Twin wall
Source: Wild, 2019
This system comprises of two walls slab that are separated. They are separated by a cast in mess
girders. The process of constructing these two separate wall entails: placing the units of the wall
at a good place in the site, then support the twin walls temporarily, they are later connected
through reinforcing and lastly filling the gap between the wall units with concrete. This mode of
construction is very swift than the other forms and also economical (Salje and Lee, 2004). It is
used in close association with the precast floor construction.
Benefits of modern methods of construction
Pan, Gibb& Dainty (2008) are researchers who did a research to examine the benefits related
with the use of modern construction methods as compared to the traditional methods of
construction. From Pan, Gibb& Dainty (2008) perspective, the modern methods of construction
are best in addressing the shortage and the poor quality of building all over the world. Modern
methods of construction use less time for the design and delivery of the whole project as
compared to the traditional methods of building. Modern methods of construction use less time
while designing and planning and also approval by the authority since no testing when a new
project begins. These opinions are supported by are upheld by Adebayo, Price & Gibb (2006)
who claims that the use of modern methods of construction has seen major project completion in
health sector as compared to when this sector was using traditional methods. According to the
material change for better environment (2007), modern construction systems have the potential
in reducing environmental waste by recycling its materials throughout the project lifecycle
(Gitonga). Taylor (2009) argues that modern construction methods have embraced offsite
construction methods which are highly automated. This raises the level of benefits related to the
modern construction approaches which is composed of predictability, faster construction, high-
quality assurance and reduced resources wastage during the process of construction.
Furthermore, there are enhanced safety and health concerns for constructors as MMC building
registers a considerably reduced number of accidents cases when likened to the traditional
methods of construction accredited to less workers on the construction site.
Figure 9: Benefits of adopting modern methods of construction
Barriers to off- site modern methods of construction
Past studies have illustrated the slow implementation of modern methods of construction is
related to several aspects. The barriers to modern construction include high costs, poor planning,
comparability challenge and overambitious economies of scale. The perception owners of
projects has had on insurance and financial markets has also been hindering the implementation
of the construction methods. This has been supported by Rahman (2014) that project owners who
depend on credit to raise their projects meet a challenge because of the perception they have on
these methods from the insurance and financial markets. High costs are also associated with
these modern construction methods since there is transportation of construction resources to the
site. There should be integration between the traditional and the modern construction methods in
order to develop a significant difference after the transition more so on the planning of the
systems. These methods have not been received well by the public who has the poor majority
thus a reluctance to implement these construction methods has been spotted despite the benefits
they have thereby less demand to workers, designers, engineers and even constructors.
Mesároš&Mandičák (2015), also adds that modern method adoption has not been successful
because of the low quantity production which is followed by reduced costs when these modern
methods are used. In the building and construction sector has received a big challenge which is
lack of workmen who have the necessary skills of modern construction methods
Strategies to promote the adoption of Modern Method of Construction
Increasing partnership and corporation among the parties involved and ensuring communication
is effective is a key strategic aspect which needs to be considered. There should be regulations
which should promote the implementation of modern methods of construction by authorizing the
quality assurance to integrate modern methods with the present construction regulations
(International Code Council, 2000). The architects, engineers and constructors should collaborate
on these issues and lay down standard that would promote economies of scale and also support
modern construction methods in this industry. Furthermore modern method can be incorporated
with construction designs and promote compatibility with traditional construction technology.
Collaboration and integration of the various systems which support construction methods like the
insurance and finance is also a strategy which can promote the adoption on modern construction
methods (Kyjaková, Mandičák and Mesároš, 2014.). The government should also have an insight
on the construction methods and plan how to support their adoption by creating favorable
political, social and economic atmosphere for the implementation. Creating awareness through
education and training of the firms concerned and permitting enough time for doing designing in
learning institutions can increase the demand for modern methods of building.
The emergence of Building information modeling has modernized the designing and managing
of projects. Predictability of construction operation and performance has been enhanced by
implementation of BIM. As the adoption of BIM hastens, integration within project workers also
increase, which enhances profitability, cost reduction, shorter time and promote client- customer
relationships. BIMs signifies a new model within AEC, one that inspires collaboration of the
tasks of all project stakeholders. This cooperation has the prospective to bringing about better
efficiency, effectiveness and harmony among workers who did not integrate in the past due to
differences among them (Gu and London, 2010). Although there are many benefits reaped when
BIM is implemented, there are also barriers to this system. In the past contractors did the plan of
architects because of the inflexibility of traditional models which hindered integration. There
were numerous errors and mistakes, inconsistencies and redundancy in the construction industry.
With the emergence of BIM transfer of architectural drawings has been enhanced because the
contractor and the architects could cooperate and work together as a team.
The rise in demand of quality constructions has called for implementation of modern methods.
Comparing the traditional methods of construction with modern ones gives a big difference since
quality and efficiency is promoted in present days. Modern methods have fewer errors, use few
resources, short time to completion and this promotes quality. There are numerous types of
modern construction methods which simplify work but there are hindrances to their adoption.
Nothing can be fully perfect thus strategies have been put in place to curb these obstacles.
List of Articles Reviewed
S.No Articles Name Year
1 Impact of modern methods of construction on healthcare Infrastructure. 2006
2 Contractors’ transformation strategies for adopting building information
3 State-of-the-art of precast concrete sandwich panels 1991
4 Flat Slab Floor System. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Flat Slabs 2014
5 Building information modelling (BIM) 2012
6 Off-site construction of apartment buildings. 2013
7 Practices and effectiveness of building information modelling in
construction projects in China
8 Sustainable performance criteria for construction method selection in
9 A guide to building information modeling for owners, managers,
designers, engineers and contractors
10 Fragility analysis of flat-slab structures 2004
11 Improving Efficiency and Productivity in the Construction Sector through
the use of Information Technology
12 Investigating human and technological requirements for successful
implementation of a BIM-based mobile augmented reality environment in
facility management practices. Facilities
13 Modern Methods of Construction to Build Homes More Quickly and
Efficiently: A Study of the UK Industry
14 Proposed theory to determine the horizontal shear between composite
precast and in situ concrete.
15 Understanding and facilitating BIM adoption in the AEC industry 2010
16 Prefabricated concrete foundations for housing 2003
17 International building code 2000 2000
18 The BIM revolution in building management 2019
19 Automated 3D volumetric reconstruction of multiple-room building
interiors for as-built BIM
20 Modern methods of construction 2013
21 Prefabricated Foundation System for Single Storey Houses.Journal for the
Advancement of Performance Information & Value
22 Modern methods of constructions and their components 2014
23 Impacts of traffic and rainfall characteristics on heavy metals build-up and
wash-off from urban roads
24 BIM use by architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) industry in
educational facility projects
25 Leading UK housebuilders’ utilization of offsite construction methods. 2008
S.No Title Year Source
1 Figure: 1 Building information modelling 2008 Smith and Edgar
2 Figure: 2 Types of data integrated in a BIM
3 Figure : 3 precast flat panel 2019 Wild
4 Figure: 4 Steel Structure with Multi-
layered Composite Enclosure
5 Figure: 5 Modular construction. 2020 Swiszczowski
6 Figure: 6 Flat slab construction 2014 Anand Paul
7 Figure: 7 Precast foundation block 2017 Source: Kumar et al,
8 Figure: 8 Twin wall 2019 Wild
9 Figure: 9 Benefits of adopting modern
methods of construction
Adebayo, A.K., Price, A. and Gibb, A., 2006. Impact of modern methods of construction on
Ahn, Y.H., Kwak, Y.H. and Suk, S.J., 2016. Contractors’ transformation strategies for adopting
building information modeling. Journal of management in engineering, 32(1),
Amin Einea, P.E., Salmon, D.С., Fogarasi, G.J., Culp, T.D. and Tadros, M.K., 1991. State-of-
the-art of precast concrete sandwich panels. PCI journal, 36(6), pp.78-98.
Anand Paul, 2014. Flat Slab Floor System. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Flat Slabs.
Azhar, S., Khalfan, M. and Maqsood, T., 2012. Building information modelling (BIM): now and
beyond. Construction Economics and Building, 12(4), pp.15-28.
Boyd, N., Khalfan, M.M. and Maqsood, T., 2013.Off-site construction of apartment
buildings. Journal of architectural engineering, 19(1), pp.51-57.
Cao, D., Wang, G., Li, H., Skitmore, M., Huang, T. and Zhang, W., 2015.Practices and
effectiveness of building information modelling in construction projects in
China. Automation in construction, 49, pp.113-122.
Chen, Y., Okudan, G.E. and Riley, D.R., 2010. Sustainable performance criteria for construction
method selection in concrete buildings. Automation in construction, 19(2), pp.235-244.
Eastman, C.M., Eastman, C., Teicholz, P., Sacks, R. and Liston, K., 2011. BIM handbook: A
guide to building information modeling for owners, managers, designers, engineers and
contractors. John Wiley & Sons.
Erberik, M.A. and Elnashai, A.S., 2004. Fragility analysis of flat-slab structures. Engineering
Structures, 26(7), pp.937-948.
Forgues, D., Tahrani, S. and Schmitz, D., 2013. Improving Efficiency and Productivity in the
Construction Sector through the use of Information Technology.CEFRIO Phase 4-Final
Report.Ecole de technologiesupérieure.
Gheisari, M. and Irizarry, J., 2016.Investigating human and technological requirements for
successful implementation of a BIM-based mobile augmented reality environment in
facility management practices. Facilities.
Gitonga, V., Modern Methods of Construction to Build Homes More Quickly and Efficiently: A
Study of the UK Industry.
Gohnert, M., 2000.Proposed theory to determine the horizontal shear between composite precast
and in situ concrete. Cement and Concrete Composites, 22(6), pp.469-476.
Gu, N. and London, K., 2010. Understanding and facilitating BIM adoption in the AEC
industry. Automation in construction, 19(8), pp.988-999.
Hanna, A. and Zeliniski, Z., 2003. Prefabricated concrete foundations for housing. International
Journal for Housing and Its Applications, 27(1), pp.41-51.
International Code Council, 2000. International building code 2000. International Code Council.
Josseaux, B., 2019. The BIM revolution in building management. [Blog] drawbotics, Available
Jung, J., Stachniss, C., Ju, S. and Heo, J., 2018.Automated 3D volumetric reconstruction of
multiple-room building interiors for as-built BIM. Advanced Engineering Informatics, 38,
Koutsogiannis, A., 2013. Modern methods of construction: The future is now!. [Blog] NHBC
Foundation, Available at:
Kumar, Ashok &Chaurasia, Ajay &Lala, Sayantani& Kumar, Aditya&Vijayraj,
2017.Prefabricated Foundation System for Single Storey Houses.Journal for the
Advancement of Performance Information & Value.
Kyjaková, L., Mandičák, T. and Mesároš, P., 2014.Modern methods of constructions and their
components. Journal of Engineering and Architecture, 2(1), pp.27-35.
Mahbub, P., Ayoko, G.A., Goonetilleke, A., Egodawatta, P. and Kokot, S., 2010. Impacts of
traffic and rainfall characteristics on heavy metals build-up and wash-off from urban
roads. Environmental science & technology, 44(23), pp.8904-8910.
Miettinen, R. and Paavola, S., 2014. Beyond the BIM utopia: Approaches to the development
and implementation of building information modeling. Automation in construction, 43,
Moreno, C., Olbina, S. and Issa, R.R., 2019. BIM use by architecture, engineering, and
construction (AEC) industry in educational facility projects. Advances in Civil
Neasden Primary School, 2019. Application of BIM in Energy Management of Individual
Departments Occupying University Facilities
Pan, W., Gibb, A.G. and Dainty, A.R., 2008.Leading UK housebuilders’ utilization of offsite
construction methods. Building Research & Information, 36(1), pp.56-67.
Pheng, L.S. and Hui, M.S., 2004. Implementing and applying Six Sigma in construction. Journal
of construction engineering and management, 130(4), pp.482-489.
Porwal, A. and Hewage, K.N., 2013. Building Information Modeling (BIM) partnering
framework for public construction projects. Automation in construction, 31, pp.204-214.
Rahman, M.M., 2014. Barriers of implementing modern methods of construction. Journal of
management in engineering, 30(1), pp.69-77.
Salje, E.K.H. and Lee, W.T., 2004. Pinning down the thickness of twin walls. Nature
materials, 3(7), pp.425-426.
Smith, D.K. and Edgar, A., 2008. Building information modeling (BIM). Natonal Institute of
Building Sciences, Washington.
Taylor, S., 2009. Offsite Production in the UK Construction Industry, A Brief Overview. Health
and Safety Executive, London, UK.
Trifunac, M.D., Ivanovć, S.S., Todorovska, M.I., Novikova, E.I. and Gladkov, A.A., 1999.
Experimental evidence for flexibility of a building foundation supported by concrete
friction piles. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 18(3), pp.169-187.
Unlu, D., 2010. Rapid bridge construction technology: precast elements for substructures.
Wild, J., 2019. What are Modern Methods of Construction. [Blog] TMC, Available at:
Womack, J.P. and Jones, D.T., 2015. Lean solutions: how companies and customers can create
value and wealth together. Simon and Schuster.
Won, J., Lee, G., Dossick, C. and Messner, J., 2013.Where to focus for successful adoption of
building information modeling within organization. Journal of construction engineering
and management, 139(11), p.04013014.
Department of Mechanical and Construction Engineering
Faculty of Engineering and Environment
MCE | Department Education Board Referral/Deferral SEM2 Version 5.3 | Page 1 of 3
Deferral/Referral Coursework Specification
1 Module Information
1.1 Module Title
Building Information Modelling Management, Theory and Practice.
1.2 Module Code Number
1.3 Module Level and Credit Points
Level 7 – 20 credits
1.4 Module Leader
1.5 Coursework Title
DEFERRAL/REFERRAL WORK: Task 1 – Literature review (100% of Module Marks)
1.6 Coursework Specification Author
1.7 Academic Year and Semester(s)
2 Coursework Submission and Feedback
2.1 Release Date of Coursework Specification to Students
23:59 BST on 16th March 2022 (Amended)
2.2 Mechanism Used to Disseminate Coursework Specification to Students
Assessment and Submission folder on Blackboard module
2.3 Date and Time of Submission of Coursework by Students
23:59 BST on 26th May 2022
2.4 The mechanism for Submission of Coursework by Students
Submission is electronic via the Blackboard link in the Referral work > Component 1 Resit folder available
in the Assessment page of the module website on eLP.
2.5 Return Date of Unconfirmed Internally Moderated Mark(s) and Feedback to Students
No later than 11:00 BST on 22nd June 2022
2.6 The mechanism for Return of Unconfirmed Internally Moderated Mark(s) and Feedback to
Turnitin digital submission portal and/or My Grades on Blackboard module
MCE | Learning and Teaching Version 5.3.i | Page 2 of 3
3 Assessment Details
3.1 Module Learning Outcomes (MLOs) Assessed by Coursework
Knowledge & Understanding:
1. Analyse the role of Building Information Modelling and within the production management process.
2. Formulate solutions to design and its response to emerging offsite processes (modern methods of
3. Justify and defend design or managerial choices made within the production process of a simulated
4. Apply disciplinary knowledge and multi-disciplinary skill to overcome complex problems of practice and
identify appropriate solutions.
5. Reflect upon learning achieved within integrated collaborative environments.
3.2 Coursework Overview
Literature review: The purpose of this assessment is to for students to engage with peer-reviewed
quality academic literature in order to produce an argument critically analysing collaborative working and
the design management process on BIM enabled projects.
3.3 Coursework Tasks to be Completed by Students
The submission should be structured as follows:
Commence by contextualising key strategic targets across the Architectural, Engineering and
Construction (AEC) industry in relation to the use of BIM and Modern Methods of Construction.
In the main body of the report the student should make use of a range of quality academic literature
in order to explore collaborative working and the importance of effective building design
management processes on BIM-enabled projects.
Suitable conclusions should then be drawn (as informed by the literature) as how the AEC industry
can respond to current challenges and opportunities in this area.
To successfully complete this report a minimum of 20 carefully selected sources should be used to inform
the literature review. These are to be relevant peer-reviewed quality academic journal articles.
Relevant textbooks and conference papers can also be used to support the review. Web based sources
should not be used, and will not be counted as any of these 20 selected sources.
3.4 Expected Size of Submission
(e.g. typical word length, number of pages, time limit for a presentation. If there is a maximum size limit,
please specify along with the penalties for exceeding this limit).
4,000 equivalent words (excluding the references section).
Figures (diagrams, illustrations, photographs etc.) and tables are welcome but must be fully
incorporated into the submission, integrated with the text and fully explained as to why they are
exhibited. 200 words are counted for each figure/table used.
The work must form a structured and coherent whole. On the front sheet of the submission, identify
the total number of words used (excluding references section) and the number of figures/tables
Penalties for exceeding this limit: If the work exceeds the allowable word limit by 10% (i.e. 300
words) then a 10% marks penalty will apply. This 10% penalty will continually be applied for any
additional text that exceed blocks of 300 words thereafter.
3.5 Referencing Style
You are to write your coursework using the Cite Them Right version of the Harvard referencing system.
An online guide to Cite Them Right is freely available to Northumbria University students at:
3.6 Assessment Criteria
Introduction: Provide sufficient contextualisation – 10%
Main Body: Produce a coherent narrative supported by quality academic literature – 60%
Conclusions: Provide an effective summary – 10%
Presentation: Issues of style structure, format, across the report and in the in-text citation and
references sections – 20%
MCE | Learning and Teaching Version 5.3.i | Page 3 of 3
You are expected to fully understand and consider these criteria in preparing the Reports. Full criteria
breakdown is also provided at the end of this document.
4 Guidance for Students on Policies for Assessment
The University has several policies for assessment. The following information, which is available to you
from the link below, provides guidance on these policies, including relevant procedures and forms.
(1) Assessment Regulations and Policies
(a) Assessment Regulations for Taught Awards
(b) Group Work Assessments Policy
(c) Moderation Policy
(d) Retention of Assessed Work Policy
(e) Word Limits Policy
(2) Assessment Feedback
(a) Anonymous Marking Policy
(3) Late Submission of Work and Extension Requests
(4) Personal Extenuating Circumstances
(5) Technical Extenuating Circumstances
(6) Student Complaints and Appeals
(7) Academic Misconduct
(8) Student Disability and Unforeseen Medical Circumstances
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