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Discussion 1
There are different types of research studies (for example, empirical, case studies, reviews, etc.). Compare and contrast two different types of research studies. In which situations would one be more suitable over another? How do investigators decide which type of research to pursue?

Reply 1 alex ( 100 words)

Empirical research studies are defined as “any research where conclusions of the study are strictly drawn from concretely empirical evidence, and therefore “verifiable” evidence” (“Empirical Research: Definition, Methods, Types, and Examples | QuestionPro,” 2022). Someone who was to use this kind of research would be able to use the research gathered through the study to come to a deduction. For example, if someone wanted to prove if listening to someone’s least favorite music would enrage them. The researchers would need to conduct an experiment in which it received individuals’ least favorite music and then tested how those individuals react upon listening to that particular music.
Case studies are defined as “to explore an event or phenomenon in-depth and in its natural context” (Crowe et al., 2011). Using case studies, the importance is on how what, and why something occurs. For example, attempting to explain a natural phenomenon in how people in crowds act. How are people acting, in what way, and why this particular way?
Case studies are more suitable for research subjects in a more natural way whereas empirical research is based on facts and data obtained. In my opinion, I believe the researchers which type of research on the subject matter they are researching.
Reply 2 jade ( 100 words)
There are many ways that research can be done and reported. All of these types can be valuable in their own ways as long as the reader knows what type of material they are reviewing. Empirical studies, for example, are first-hand studies done with using quantitive research. A way I remember this is quantitive comes from the word quantity, and these types of studies are rich in statistics and numbers. These are studies done first hand starting with a hypothesis, then outlining testing subjects, and ending with numerical results. Quantative research relies heavily on empirical data and the scientific method (Staines, 2019). Next, case study type data can also be valuable. These are more in depth studies looking at a small group or individuals. This type of research struggles to be applicable to a broad population, but can give details and unique views to specific scenarios or strange situations.
For my topic, I am researching outpatient programs for substance abuse. Ideally, I would be able to report on first-hand, empirical studies that have tested effectiveness of different programs or treatments. Empirical data, because it is tested by the scientific method, is highly valid and respected in the community. Yet there is not always availability of these studies (have not been done yet, etc.). A case study would be valuable also. An example would be a case study that would give insight to a particular, small group at a treatment center and their success rates under certain treatments. However, this information would need to be used supplementally, since it would be questionable whether this information would apply to all people. 

Discussion 2
What does it mean for a source to be peer-reviewed? Why is peer-review important in social and behavioral sciences? How do you plan to incorporate peer-reviewed research into your final paper for this course?

Reply 1 Lasho ( 100 words)
Peer reviewed is basically the same thing as posting a painting on Facebook that you did and then your peers and friends post comments about it and might even give you a few likes. It’s the same concept when it comes to a peer reviewed article. The article has basically been under the review and scrutiny of experts of the same field. I think this is actually a good thing because otherwise people would submit bogus material. This in a sense forces a writer to be diligent about their research and operate in integrity when providing information to their viewers. It also set a standard and encourages to author to provide meaningful insight on a subject matter. I absolutely love the school digital resource and library section. I believe each time I write a paper I go in and use peer reviewed journals and articles from there. I plan to use at least one source from there to support the information that I find regarding the difficulties surrounding caregiving. Some might argue that it takes a while at times for an author’s work to be reviewed. Peer reviewed libraries have exploded especially with so much access now globally to information, but it makes it harder for updated information to be provided to those who scrutinize submissions. Now you get into an issue of quality control and wondering who is really reviewing this stuff. 

Reply 2 petro (100 words)

Aren’t peer reviewed journals more than just how our text explains “…journals that connect you with research-based material” (Staines, 2019 p. 12). I’ve always kind of wondered what peer reviewed really meant and wondered what the drawbacks could be on this. So, first off, I liked this explanation “A peer-reviewed publication is also sometimes referred to as a scholarly publication. The peer-review process subjects an author’s scholarly work, research, or ideas to the scrutiny of others who are experts in the same field (peers) and is considered necessary to ensure academic scientific quality” (https://www.usgs.gov/faqs/what-does-it-mean-when-publication-peer-reviewed?).
A rose by any other name, they are all one in the same – Scholarly Article, Academic Article, or Peer-Reviewed Article, whew, that simplifies things. They are “research publications that are published in scholarly journals” (https://youtu.be/Z2t9wKpm0Fo). Findings undergo this process to ensure that the research being published is relevant and significant.
Peers that review drafts are like academic referees and peer reviewed articles are in fact sometimes referred to as refereed articles. They judge the quality and significance of the research and either approve of it or reject it (https://youtu.be/Z2t9wKpm0Fo).
As for why this process is important in the social and behavioral sciences “The peer review process is seen as the gold standard in science because it ensures the rigor, novelty, and consistency of academic outputs. Typically, through rounds of review, flawed ideas are eliminated and good ideas are strengthened and improved” (https://www.socialsciencespace.com). This was a great synapsis as to why this is so important in the sciences.




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