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Write a pa per in APA format using a minimum of 700 words excluding cover, reference page and any appendices to address the following. A minimum of five reliable sources are required (see Note below).
 
 Perform preliminary research and select a product you have an interest in performing a Life Cycle Analysis on. The product that has been selected is ‘Plastic Spoon’.
Part 1:
 

Name and give a brief introduction on the Product you selected to perform a Life Cycle Analysis on.
Describe how it is used and by what groups (consumers or corporations or both) and in what locations (locally in an area or worldwide for example).
Explain why this Product was selected and whether based on preliminary research its life cycle can be analyzed for Parts 2 and 3. 

 Part 2

Discuss the processes for the following phases and explain the energy inputs and outputs involved:
Include a graphic showing the flow of processes for the following phases:

Acquisition of Raw Materials
Manufacture and Processing 
Distribution & Transportation 

I have attached the reference paper for the second part of the question. PS: Its just an example. The product that I should be using is PLASTIC SPOON.

Inputs, Process and Output of Latex Condoms

Bipin Thandar

SCI 215 Creating a Sustainable World: Technology & Energy Solutions

Westcliff University

Presidential Business School

Sijal Pokharel

March 24, 2022

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What are Latex Condoms and its Inputs?

Condoms made of latex rubber first introduced in the twentieth century after rubber

condoms first were introduced in the nineteenth. Natural condoms, on the other hand, are far

more permeable and therefore less efficient in blocking microbes, including HIV. Human

papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmissible virus, has indeed been linked to ovarian

cancer, which condoms are proven to safeguard from (Reproductive Health Matters, 2006).

To produce a condom, the most significant raw material is the latex milk, extracted

from the latex trees. Such latex trees are generally found in the south American Amazonian

rainforests including Brazil, Venezuela and the rest of the region. Well before barrel is

completely full of latex, it normally takes about a half day to fill. Harvesting may only be

performed on dry days to prevent precipitation from diluting the latex. A total of 300 trees

will have their bark shaved away during the latex extraction process. Similarly, other

materials such as sulphur/zinc oxide, polydimethylsiloxane (silicone oil) and powders are

required in order to produce a condom along with water. After extracting and acquiring the

raw materials, it has to be processed in to a systematic order, which requires machines such

as condom dipping lines, condom burst volumes and bursting pressure testing equipment,

tests on a piece-by-piece basis for pinholes and other devices, assisting in quality control.

Moreover, human resources, fuel, energy and so on are other inputs for the production of a

condom.

The Process to Produce a Condom

Majority of condoms are composed of organic rubber, which is derived from the sap

of rubber plants (latex milk). Following crystallizing and hardening in the presence of air, the

rubber was sliced into little pieces before it was again liquidities using petrol. Nevertheless,

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this was a difficult and risky procedure, with frequent explosions occurring in the

manufacturing buildings.

As a result, research was launched for a method to lower the latex’s relative humidity,

making it simpler to carry while yet allowing it to remain liquid. Eventually, ammonia was

determined to be the answer, which prevented the latex from crystallizing by heating and

evaporating it. Ammonia with in natural latex concentration evaporates as a colourless gas

which has a strong, lingering odour being heated more during additional processing (CAREY

et al., 1992).

Presently, a litre of latex may provide up to 700 condoms. This is done by dipping the

glass moulds into liquefied latex milk. Sap from the rubber trees (60 %), water (38.5 %) and

zinc/sulphur oxide make up the latex milk (1.5 %). The mouldings are again cleansed and

coated with a thin rubber layer after a quick soaking in the milk (the warmth of which is

between 20 and 30 degrees). Following several soaking washes and drying periods, the

condom reaches a thickness around 0.03 and 0.08 millimetres in its raw form. To get the rim

on the wide end, one will need brushes. The heated air cylinders are then used to vulcanize

the condom, which is finally removed from the glass mould.

Cleaning is the next step. Powder and silicone are added to water to ensure that now

the condoms are just no more adhesive or sticky. They are then dried at a temperature of

around 85 degrees. To see if there is any leakage, cylinders are submerged in a liquid

electrolyte. Ionic conductivity is reduced in the presence of a condom opening. Electricity is

running through into the condom if somehow the light on the substation comes on, indicating

that the condom must have leaked and has to be discarded. Random quality tests are carried

out by condom brand producers (elasticity test, inflation test, microbiological purity test, leak

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test) (Trussell et al., 1992). A condom, for instance, must be able to extend up to seven times

its regular size before suffering any harm.

How the Finished Products Reach to Customers?

In order to start the manufacturing process, materials need to be available in the

plants. Similarly, after the completion of the manufacturing process, the end product needs to

be made available to the customers, who would use it, otherwise the entire production would

be nothing but waste. The largest condom manufacturer in the world is Karex, which is a

Malaysia based company. Since, the raw materials, latex, is found majorly in the rain forests

of Amazonian region, it needs to be transported all the way to the plants of Malaysia from the

rainforests.

Similarly, after the production, it needs to reach to the customers. Japan and China are

some of the largest consumers of condoms, where China alone consumed 13 billion units of

condoms in 2018 (Matsumoto et al., 1972). In order to fulfil the demand, the finished

products again need to be transported to the places where there is demand. Once a unit of

condom is used, it cannot be reused or recycled, hence, once the consumer uses a condom, its

life cycle ends (Htat et al., 2015).

Summary

The preceding chart depicts the visual of input and output associated in the production

cycle through end of life:

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Figure 1: Flow chart to show the life cycle of condoms

In the figure 1, the use of raw materials such as latex, the manufacturing process and

the use along with the transportation and waste produced due to the production of condom is

portrayed in the flow. Due to the production of condoms, huge quantity of waste is generated

in all the levels of production. While in the extraction phase of the raw materials, the barks of

the trees that are taken down for the process, are the waste. Similarly, the excess materials

that do not get used in the manufacturing becomes the waste. Likewise, all the condoms that

Input

-Labour

-Transportation

-Machineries

Raw Materials
– Latex

-Silicone oil

Waste

-Barks of latex

trees

drying

Dipping

compounding

beading

washing

stripping

curing or post-

vulcanization

physical

property

testing

Packaging

Waste

– Unused Materials

Input

– condom dipping lines

– electronic testing machines

-equipment for the measurement of

burst volume and burst pressure

– machine for the detection of

pinholes

Input

– Electricity

– Fuel

– Labour

Final Product

Waste

-Used Condoms

Use of the product

Transportation

Transportation

Plants

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get used cannot be reused or recycled, hence, every unit that gets produced eventually

becomes waste. Moreover, huge amount of fuel and energy gets used in order to produce

condoms, which has negative impact on the environment in the long run.

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References

CAREY, R. F., HERMAN, W. A., RETTA, S. M., RINALDI, J. E., HERMAN, B. A., &

ATHEY, T. W. (1992). Effectiveness of Latex Condoms As a Barrier to Human

Immunodeficiency Virus-sized Particles Under Conditions of Simulated Use. Sexually

Transmitted Diseases, 19(4).

Htat, H. W., Longfield, K., Mundy, G., Win, Z., & Montagu, D. (2015). A total market

approach for condoms in Myanmar. Supplement: Symposium on the Private Sector in

Health: Sydney 2013, 30. https://www.jstor.org/stable/48508830

Matsumoto, Y. S., Koizumi, A., & Nohara, T. (1972). Condom Use in Japan. Studies in

Family Planning, 3(10), 251. mailto:https://doi.org/10.2307/1964707

Reproductive Health Matters. (2006). Condoms, Yes! “Abstinence”, No. Taylor & Francis,

Ltd., 14(28). https://www.jstor.org/stable/25475272

Trussell, J., Warner, D. L., & Hatcher, R. A. (1992). Condom Slippage and Breakage Rates.

Family Planning Perspectives, 24(1), 20. https://doi.org/10.2307/2135721

https://www.jstor.org/stable/48508830

mailto:https://doi.org/10.2307/1964707

https://www.jstor.org/stable/25475272

https://doi.org/10.2307/2135721

Life Cycle Assessment of A4 size Paper: Part 2

Sahas Belbase
Westcliff University
Creating a Sustainable World: Technology & Energy Solutions
Professor Sijal Pokharel
November 17, 2021

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Electricity, heat, fuel, water

Input

Water, electricity, fuel

Electricity, heat, explosives

Output

Emission of CO2, electricity, fuel

Extraction

Woods, clays, water, metals, graphite ore.

Pollution, Methane gas emission
Habitat loss, tree fragments, dust and fine graphite particles, and soil contamination are all factors.

Distribution

Cardboard boxes, plastics wrappers

Manufacturing

Slates, rubbers, graphite lead, paint.

Life Cycle Assessment of A4 size Paper: Part 2

In this section, we will talk about how cardboard boxes are made. We will start at the very beginning, called the cradle stage, and work our way to the very end, called the grave stage, when we will explain what happens to the Cardboard box after it’s produced. Raw material extraction, material manufacture, and product manufacture are the most significant processes in the manufacturing of a product. Each of these stages’ inputs and outputs will be examined.

Extraction: The extraction of raw materials is the first step in the creation of any product. Trees and glue are the only raw materials utilized in the creation of cardboard boxes. Pine trees are a great supply of raw materials for creating lumber, paper, and cardboard because they are fast-growing and robust. Before it can be used to manufacture paper, the raw wood must be converted into pulp. We can also find habitat loss, trees being broken down into bits, dust and fine graphite particles being produced, and soil contamination during the extraction of material for Cardboard boxes. This stage is always required in the production of any product.

Manufacturing: The second process is production, which follows the extraction of material for Cardboard boxes. After that, the wood pulp of wood fibers is treated to generate paper. Glues are commonly used to corrugate papers in order to create cardboard boxes. Cardboard boxes have a corrugating medium inside structure, as well as an outside and inner layer of linerboard. Each layer has a wide number of ‘base weights,’ or weights per square meter, to choose from. Double and triple wall boxes are also available, and the corrugating medium is available in a variety of weights and flute profiles. There is, in fact, a solid packing material that is not multi-layered. The product is virtually ready for distribution now.

Distribution: The distribution of manufactured goods is now the third stage of the specified LCA. Two of the most critical parts of shipping and delivering goods and products are distribution and transportation. Transportation is the process of moving objects from one point to another, whereas distribution is the process of classifying, conveying, and distributing products to their final destination. The total procedure that guarantees that the product arrives at its destination in good shape, also known as proper commodities handling, is known as distribution. Transportation is an aspect of the distribution process that deals with the movement of commodities but not with the development of methods for moving items. These procedures are followed to get manufactured goods to their end destination, or customers. However, there are other negative consequences of using transportation, including the emission of pollutants from automobiles that harm the environment. Furthermore, non-recycled materials might contaminate the environment.

References

Gaudrealt, C. (10th November, 2009). Using LCA to Enhance EMS: Pulp and paper case study.
Environmental progress and Sustainable energy, 28(4), 576-588.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/ep.10340

Moreno, A. (22nd July, 2011). Application of product data technology standards to LCA data.
Journal of industrial ecology, 15(4), 483-495
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-9290.2011.00353.x

Hauschild, M. & Barlaz, M. A. (23rd November, 2010). LCA in waste Management.
Solid waste technology and waste management, 1 & 2.

DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470666883.ch10